São Paulo School of Advanced Sciences on Reverse Engineering of Processed Foods
Book of Abstracts September 25th - October 04th, 2017
Faculty of Food Engineering - FEA University of Campinas – UNICAMP
Campinas, SP, Brazil
Welcome from the Organizing Committee It is our great pleasure to welcome you to FAPESP’s São Paulo School of Advanced Sciences on Reverse Engineering of Processed Foods. This is the first School on Food Science held by the School of Food Engineering from the University of Campinas. We all wish to welcome you in Brazil, primarily to introduce you to newer aspects of Food Process Engineering and also to meet colleagues from around the world to forge lasting bonds. The last decades have witnessed the continued revolution of scientific advances and technological development in the field of Food Science. As the revolution in Food Processes continues, the scientific program of the SPSAS presents an outstanding variety of subjects from top researchers around the world, who are bringing the latest developments in the field, with a multidisciplinary approach. The organizers expect to start training both Brazilian and foreign graduate students, post-docs and young teachers of food science, technology and engineering to view this multidisciplinary field as potentially ready to utilize new techniques for the improvement of nutrient/nutraceutical bioavailability, in addition to making future foods safer from the standpoint of chronic non-communicable diseases by the application of novel biomolecular techniques as a criterion of long-term food safety. This course should give students the fundamentals to view and design future foods from a new angle whose foremost function is to be healthpromoting in the long term. The scientific program is organized to provide tangible benefits and networking opportunities to current students and future researchers; it also provides a tremendous opportunity for younger scientists and students to learn about future prospects and development activities in Food Processing. Welcome to SPSAS on Reverse Engineering of Processed Foods and to Brazil.
Prof. Miriam Dupas Hubinger School Chair
Scientific Committee Miriam Dupas Hubinger - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante - DCA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Anderson de Souza Sant´Ana - DCA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Antonio José de Almeida Meireles - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil António Augusto Martins de Oliveira Soares Vicente - UM - Portugal Helena Maria André Bollini - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Jaime Amaya Farfan - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Marcelo Cristianini - DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Marise Aparecida Rodrigues Pollonio - DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Rosiane Lopes da Cunha - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil
Organizing Committee Ana Carla Kawazoe Sato - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Ana Paula Barth - DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Carolina Siqueira Franco Picone - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Cinthia Bau Betim Cazarin - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Daniela Souza Ferreira - DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Débora Parra Baptista - DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Douglas Fernandes Barbin - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Elemar Cristina Jeremias - SEP-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Eliana Velez Erazo - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Guilherme José Maximo - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Guilherme Miranda Tavares - DCA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Jéssica Caroline Nogueira - SEP-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Joyce Dias Pereira - SEP-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Klicia Araujo Sampaio - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti - DEPAN-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Liliana de Oliveira Rocha - DCA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Louise Emy Kurozawa - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Marcos Antonio de Castro - SEP-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Marcus Bruno Soares Forte - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Maristela Ozaki – DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Mirna Lucia Gigante – DTA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Nathalia Cristina Cirone Silva - DCA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Rosana Goldbeck - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Rosângela Santos - LAC-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Tatiana Porto dos Santos - DEA-FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil
Summary Welcome from the Organizing Committee ........................................................................................................... i Scientific Committee ............................................................................................................................................ ii Organizing Committee .......................................................................................................................................... ii Invited Professors .................................................................................................................................................1 Class Subject .........................................................................................................................................................4 Student´s Abstracts ..............................................................................................................................................5 ³¹P NMR FOR DETECTING PHOSPHATE SPECIES IN PROCESSED CHEESE ..................................................................5 A NEW WAY TO PRODUCE CACHAÇA .......................................................................................................................5 ADDING BLENDS OF CaCl2, KCl AND NaCl TO REDUCE SODIUM IN JERKED BEEF: EFFECTS ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ALONG PROCESSING. ...........................................................................................................................6 ADDITION OF SALMON ENHANCED THE IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY OF CAROTENOIDS IN A VEGETABLE SALAD .......................................................................................................................................................................6 APPLICATION OF AN IN VITRO GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION MODEL TO STUDY THE INTERACTION OF FOLIC WITH EGG WHITE NANOCARRIERS ...........................................................................................................................7 APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE CONCENTRATION OF ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS IN FRESH CUT KIWIFRUITS AND TO IMPROVE THEIR PRESERVATION DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE ..............7 APPLICATION OF UNDERVALUED NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE FORMULATION OF NUTRITIONAL AND NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS FOR HEALTHY FOOD FORMULATIONS ...................................................................8 BIOACCESIBILITY AND IN VITRO RELEASE KINETICS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED TO DIETARY FIBER IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L) ‘ATAULFO’ BY-PRODUCTS ................................................................................9 BIOACCESSIBILITY OF IN NATURA AND FERMENTED JUSSARA ................................................................................9 BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OILS OBTAINED FROM THE CITRUS BY-PRODUCTS CO-EXTRACTION USING A MODIFIED SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE ......................................10 BIOFORTIFICATION OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS WITH SELENIUM: EFFECT ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY .................10 -LACTOGLOBULIN AND GELATIN AS CARRIERS FOR FOLIC ACID: INFLUENCE OF THE BINDING ON IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY OF THE VITAMINE .....................................................................................................................11 CELL WALL MATERIALS THE VEHICOLATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS: MECHANISMS AND MODELING OF KINETICS RELAESE ...................................................................................................................................................12 CELLULAR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF BIOTRANSFORMED GRAPE POMACE EXTRACT IN CACO-2 CELLS......................................................................................................................................12 CELLULOSE-BASED ACTIVE FILM INCORPORATED WITH OREGANO ESSENTIAL AND ORGANOPHYLIC CLAY ........13 CHANGES ON RHEOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GELLAN GELS ENCAPSULATING ANTHOCYANINS AND ITS ACTION DURING IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY PROCESS ......................................................13 iii
CHARACTERISING THE INGREDIENT INTERACTIONS AND OPTIMAL PROCESSING PARAMETER OF NOVEL BAKED PRODUCTS WITH REDUCED SUGAR........................................................................................................................14 CHARACTERIZATION OF EDIBLE BEESWAX-BASED OLEOGELS AIMING AT FOOD INCORPORATION .....................14 CHEMICAL-FREE ASSESSMENT OF MEAT QUALITY USING SPECTRAL IMAGING ....................................................15 COATING OF LIPID PARTICLES LOADED WITH VITAMIN D......................................................................................15 COMBINED HIGH PRESSURE EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR FULL USE OF BIQUINHO PEPPER (Capsicum chinense) 16 COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION BETWEEN HPMC AND SOY PROTEIN AT THE OIL/WATER INTERFACE: BEHAVIOUR OF EMULSIONS UNDER IN VITRO LIPOLYSIS...........................................................................................................16 DEVELOPMENT BREAD WITH CHLORELLA VULGARIS ADDITION: A RHEOLOGICAL APPROACH IMPACT OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY WHEAT DOUGH PROPERTIES CHLORELLA VULGARIS AS AN INGREDIENT FOR BAKERY INDUSTRY......................................................................................................................17 DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE, INTELLIGENT AND BIODEGRADABLE PACKAGING FOR FRESH BANANA....................17 DEVELOPMENT OF LIPID-BASED NANOSYSTEMS USING BIOSURFACTANTS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF VITAMINS ................................................................................................................................................................................18 DEVELOPMENT OF PECTIN-BASED EDIBLE FILMS INCORPORATED WITH JAMBOLAN JUICE (SYZYGIUM CUMINI) AND CINNAMON OR CLOVE OLEORESIN ................................................................................................................19 DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE SOUP NUTRITIONALLY ENRICHED WITH SPIRULINA ............................................19 DIETARY FIBER AND BOUND PHENOLICS FROM GRAPE PEEL POWDER PROMOTE GSH RECYCLING BUT NOT GSH SYNTHESIS IN RATS WITH TNBS-ULCERATIVE COLITIS ...........................................................................................19 EFFECT OF FREEZING AND FREEZE-DRYING ON THE BIOACCESSIBILITY OF CAROTENOIDS AND CAROTENOID ESTERS FROM MANGO ...........................................................................................................................................20 EFFECT OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON LISTERIA INNOCUA INACTIVATION IN MINAS FRESCAL CHEESE ADDED WITH CARROT ............................................................................................................................................21 EFFECT OF INCORPORATING FREE AND ENCAPSULATED ECHIUM OIL, PHYTOSTEROLS AND SINAPIC ACID IN YOGURT ..................................................................................................................................................................21 EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROTEIN SOLUTION (BSA) AND THE CONSEQUENCES ON THE ULTRAFILTRATION PERFORMANCE ...............................................................................22 EFFECT OF PH ON THE HYDRATION KINETICS OF BLACK-EYED COWPEA SEEDS (VIGNA UNGUICULATA) .............23 EFFECT OF VISCOSITY OF FOOD ON DIGESTION IN THE HUMAN SMALL INTESTINE - AN IN VITRO EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY ........................................................................................................................................23 EFFECTS OF THE CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF A DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH PERSEA AMERICANAMILL. (AVOCADO) PULP IN HEALTHY MICE. .....................................................................................................................24 EFFECTS OF PROCESS VARIABLES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIGELS ...............................................24 ENZIMATIC SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURED LIPIDS, RICH IN OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN A HIGH PRESSURE BIOREACTOR..........................................................................................................................................25 iv
EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN LAYER ON BIOACESSIBILITY OF BIOACTIVE MODEL COMPOUNDS IN PROTEIN NANOHYDROGELS ...................................................................................................................................25 EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STEVIA EXTRACTS AN ITS APPLICATION AS FUNCTIONAL SWEETENER IN BAKERY PRODUCTS ......................................................................26 EVALUATION OF THE “CACAO HONEY” AS A RICH SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS TO BE CONSUMED IN NATURA AND/OR TO ADD NUTRITIONAL VALUE TO DRINKS AND FOODS ............................................................27 EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOR OF EDIBLE CHITOSAN FILMS STORED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS. ......27 EVALUATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND SOLVENT CONTENT IN THE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC AND ANTHOCYANINS COMPOUNDS FROM WASTE OF CAMU-CAMU ...........................................................................28 EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND USE IN THE FORMATION OF MULTILAYER EMULSIONS MICROENCAPSULATED BY SPRAY DRYING ...................................................................................................................................................28 FORMULATION OF COOKIES FOR PEOPLE INTOLERANT TO GLUTEN USING DEFATTED HAZELNUT FLOUR (GEVUINA AVELLANA, MOL) AND QUINOA FLOUR (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD). ........................................29 FUNCTIONAL FOODS EFFECTS ON MICROBIOME OF DIABETIC CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS ..................30 HEAT-INDUCED GELATION OF MICELLAR CASEIN SYSTEMS AS AFFECTED BY CALCIUM IONS ADDITION OR CHELATION .............................................................................................................................................................30 HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF JABOTICABA PEEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL INVOLVES UPREGULATION OF GSH SYNTHESIS PATHWAY .....................................................................................................................................31 HIGH PRESSURE ASSISTED INFUSION OF CALCIUM IN BABY CARROTS AND OTHER VEGETABLES ........................31 HYDROGEL BEADS PRODUCED BY IONIC GELATION CONTAINING ANTHOCYANINS FROM JUSSARA EXTRACT ....32 IMPACT OF EMULSIFIERS MIXTURE AND OILY PHASE PROPERTIES ON THE EMULSION FEATURES ......................32 IMPACT OF MEXICAN SCHOOLCHILDREN DIET ON THE PRODUCTION OF INTESTINAL METABOLITES DURING IN VITRO COLONIC FERMENTATION ...........................................................................................................................33 INFLUENCE OF BLANCHING TIME ON STARCH DIGESTIBILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF OIL-FREE CHIPS TREATED BY MICROWAVE DRYING ........................................................................................................................................34 INFLUENCE OF SOLID FAT CONTENT ON TEXTURAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF EMULSION GELS .........34 INVERSE METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DURING FREEZING OF FOODS IN 3D.....35 LONG CIRCULATORY POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES OF BETULINIC ACID: DEVELOPMENT, MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION, PHARMACOKINETICS AND ANTITUMOR EFFICACY IN SOLID TUMOR MODEL ...........................35 LONGLIFE: FOOD FERMENTATION FOR PURPOSE – BIOPRESERVATION ...............................................................36 MICROFLUIDIC PRODUCTION OF DOUBLE EMULSION AS TEMPLATES FOR β-CAROTENE-LOADED GIANT LIPOSOMES FORMATION........................................................................................................................................36 MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL PROCESSING OF FOOD CONSUMED BY ECUADORIAN ADOLESCENTS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY .............................................................................................................37 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ENCAPSULATED SOURSOP (Annona muricata L.) LEAVES EXTRACT BY SPRAY DRYING ....37 v
MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CAN BE USED FOR SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ACYLATED ANTHOCYANINSFROM RED CABBAGE ....................................................................................................................38 MODERATE ELECTRIC FIELDS EFFECTS ON WHEY PROTEIN´S STRUCTURE, INTERACTIONS AND GELATION ........39 MODIFYING THE MELTING PROFILE OF LIPIDS WITH MONOTERPENES ................................................................39 NEW FINDINGS IN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE WHEY PEPTIDES CONSIDERING STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RESPONSES ........40 NEW METHOD FOR CAROTENOIDS EXTRACTION FROM ORANGE PEEL: A GREEN CHEMISTRY APPROACH .........40 NUTRI BAR: AN EFFECTIVE NUTRITIVE SOLUTION FOR VICTIMS OF HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES ..................41 OBTAINING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD SET GELS FROM QUINOA PROTEIN HYDROLYZATES ..................42 OHMIC AND CONVENTIONAL HEATING OF NATURAL LITCHI JUICE: STUDY OF HEATING BEHAVIOUR AND CHANGES IN VARIOS QUALITY PARAMETERS .........................................................................................................42 OHMIC HEATING AFFECTING LACTOFERRIN PROPERTIES AND INFLUENCING ON PRODUCTION OF COLD, GELLIKE EMULSIONS .....................................................................................................................................................43 OLEOGELS FROM HIGH INTERNAL PHASE EMULSION TEMPLATES STABILIZED BY SODIUM CASEINATE-ALGINATE COMPLEXES ............................................................................................................................................................43 PASTE PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED MIXED FLOURS OF SORGHUM, ORANGE FIBER AND WHEY POWDER FOR PRODUCTION OF GLUTEN FREE CAKE FLOUR.........................................................................................................44 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CELL WALL RUPTURE METHODS FOR BREWER'S SPENT YEAST ......................45 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALGINATE-BASED FILMS: CROSSLINKING AND MANNURONIC/ GULURONIC RATIO EFFECT .........................................................................................................................................................45 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOYBEAN OIL ORGANOGELS.........................................................................46 PINEAPPLE CO-PRODUCTS AS A SOURCE OF ADDED VALUE COMPOUNDS...........................................................46 POTATO BY-PRODUCTS AS A MATERIAL FOR BIOLOGICALLY VALUABLE COMPOUND EXTRACTION AND ENCAPSUALTION.....................................................................................................................................................47 POTATO STARCH MODIFICATION BY OZONE OXIDATION: CHANGES IN ITS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES. ........47 PREBIOTIC EFFECT OF ORANGE JUICE ON GUT MICROBIOME MODEL ..................................................................48 PRODUCTION OF LIPID MICROPARTICLES BY CO-EXTRUSION: IMPROVEMENT OF PROBIOTIC SURVIVAL IN SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL FLUIDS................................................................................................................49 PRODUCTION OF NATURAL NANO-GEL FROM PINEAPPLE POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEXES FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS ...................................................................................................................49 PROSOPIS ALBA FLOUR AS A NOVEL FOOD MATRIX TO VITAMIN B12 PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI CRL1098 ..................................................................................................................................................................50 PROTEOLYSIS OF PRATO CHEESE PRODUCED WITH ADJUNCT CULTURE Lactobacillus helveticus. .......................50 PULSE FLOURS ENHANCE THE NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHEAT FLOUR CRACKERS ...............................................................................................................................................................51 QUALITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF INNOVATIVE GRAIN LEGUME PRODUCTS ..........................................................51 vi
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS OF CASSAVA PEEL CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS OBTAINED BY ACID HYDROLYSIS ..............................................................................................................................................52 SAPONIN RICH PLANT EXTRACTS FROM FOOD BY-PRODUCT STREAMS AS NEW NATURAL EMULSIFIER .............53 SENSORIAL EVALUATION OF SPIRULINA NUTRITIONALLY ENRICHED PUDDING....................................................53 SHORT –TIME SUPPLEMENTATION WITH FREEZE-DRIED JABOTICABA PEEL CAN MODULATES AUTOPHAGY MARKERS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE IN MICE ...................................................................................................................54 SPRAY DRIED LIPID -BASED FORMULATIONS CONTAINING CLOVE EXTRACT: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO PERMEATION ACROSS CaCo-2 CELL MONOLAYERS ......................................54 STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON PROPERTIES OF LIPID COMPOSITIONS LOADED WITH LIPPIA SIDOIDES ESSENTIAL OIL USING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ...........................................................................55 SUPERCRITICAL ANTISOLVENT FRACTIONATION OF THE EXTRACT FROM RED PROPOLIS ....................................55 SURVIVAL LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS MICROENCAPSULATED BY SPRAY DRYING IN PRESENCE OF TREHALOE AND SUCROSE DURING STORAGE ..........................................................................................................................56 TAILLORING DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF VALUABLE COMPOUNDS FROM NATURAL SOURCES USING CHOLINE CHLORIDE AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS MIXTURES: OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM JUGLANS REGIA L. LEAVES .............................................................................56 ULTRASOUND ASSISTED MOLECULAR ENCAPSULATION OF ANTI-GLICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT THYME COMPONENTS IN -CICLODEXTRIN ........................................................................................................................57 ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED FORMATION OF O/W PICKERING-EMULSIONS STABILIZED BY CHITOSAN PARTICLES ...58 USE OF A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT OBTAINED FROM GRAPE POMACE IN THE FORMULATION OF TILAPIA SAUSAGES ...............................................................................................................................................................58 UTILIZATION OF THE BY-PRODUCT OF WET BARLEY MILLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOODLES AND SPAGHETTI TYPES ...................................................................................................................................................59 W/O NANOEMULSIONS LOADED WITH AÇAÍ BERRY PHYTOCHEMICALS AS INNOVATIVE AND STABLE FOOD INGREDIENT ............................................................................................................................................................59 WHEY PEPTIDE-IRON COMPLEXES: OBTAINING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF IRON PRO-OXIDANT EFFECT AND IRON BIOAVAILABILITY USING CACO-2 CELL CULTURE MODEL .........................................................60
Invited Professors ANTÓNIO AUGUSTO MARTINS DE OLIVEIRA SOARES VICENTE Associate Professor - University of Minho – Portugal Food technology and food processing (edible films and coatings, food grade materials-based nanostructures, ohmic heating/moderate electric fields effects on biomolecules); In vitro simulation of the gastro-intestinal system; Bioreactor Engineering (high cell density systems, modelling, hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reaction in bioreactors) e-mail: [email protected]
ASHOK RANCHODBHAI PATEL International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory - Portugal Currently working as a Marie Curie Cofund Fellow in the Food Processing Group at INL. His past and current research is focused on creating novel structured systems including oleogels, colloidal particles and complex emulsions for applications in food systems. He has more than 50 ‘first-authored’ publications in the area of food colloid science including original papers, reviews, book chapters, patents and a single-authored book. He is involved in the scientific committees of AOCS Annual Meetings, FSFF Symposium and ICFP biannual conferences. He is also currently on the editorial board of Springer journal – Food Biophysics. At INL, Dr. Patel aims to work on his ambitious project of developing complex colloidal particles that carry and deliver fat-binding agents to the intestine. e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
CHRISTIAN HOFFMANN Professor Doctor - Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas – USP – Brazil. Prof. Hoffman works in molecular ecology of microbial systems. In the last 10 years he has focused on human and hosts microbiomes including the interactions between microbiome functions in health and diseases, and how this is modulated by diet and the immune system. e-mail: [email protected]
IVAN ARAUJO The John B. Pierce Laboratory & Yale University School of Medicine – USA Prof. Araujo works on how the central nervous system controls feeding behavior. We have specifically aimed at identifying the interneuron reward systems enabling gastrointestinal and metabolic signals to engage/disengage feeding behaviors. Over the last couple of years, we achieved a characterization of the ascending pathways that link mesenteric/gastrointestinal nutrient sensing to the activation of brain dopaminergic reward cells. Our most recent work, currently unpublished, focuses on the mechanisms by which the brain controls cranio-mandibular systems, specifically the mechanisms of jaw prehension and tongue protusion. We intend to gradually promote the neural control of craniofacial systems as the main focus of our research. Generally our studies make use of a combination of techniques including behavioral, neurochemical (brain microdialysis), in vivo/slice electrophysiological, optogenetic and, more recently, in vivo cell imaging methods. e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
JAIME AMAYA-FARFAN Professor - Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos - FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Prof. Farfan works on nutrition and food processing, with emphasis on the nutritional and molecular effects of foods on the human body, particularly in the area of proteins, peptides and amino acids. He has kept a strong interest in functional foods, protein hydrolyzates, food bioactive peptides, and the impact of foods on the intestinal microbiota and the consumers health. e-mail: [email protected]
JORGE HERMAN BEHRENS Assistant Professor - Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos - FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Jorge Behrens holds a degree in Chemistry from the University of Campinas (1994) and a PhD in Food Technology (2002) from the same institution. He completed postdoctoral studies at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of São Paulo (2002-2006) and since 2012 holds the position of assistant professor at the School of Food Engineering at the University of Campinas. His research interests include sensory science and consumer behavior studies, besides bridging the gap between consumer perception and analytical/instrumental data. e-mail: [email protected]
KATIA SIVIERI Professor Doctor - Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Araraquara – UNESP - Brazil Prof. Sivieri works in Food Science and Technology, with emphasis in Food Microbiology, focused on the following subjects: Probiotics, symbiotic, functional food development, intestinal microbiota, in vitro (dynamic or batch) methods for intestinal microbiota evaluation. e-mail: [email protected]
MARIO ROBERTO MARÓSTICA JÚNIOR. Associate Professor I - Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos - FEA - UNICAMP - Brazil Prof. Mario R. Maróstica Junior is undergraduated in Food Engineering (University of Campinas, 2002), PhD in Food Science (University of Campinas, 2006), PhD stay at Leibniz Universitât Hannover, Germany, in 2004 and Research stay at Lund University, Sweden, in 2009. He works with the biological role of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, lipids and prebiotics. From 2006 to 2008, he worked in Centroflora, Anidro do Brasil as specialist researcher. He received CAPES Award: Best PhD Thesis 2007 in Food Science, and 3rd place in Pemberton Award, 2013. Prof. Mario Marostica has a strong internacional cooperation with Hannover University (Germany), Lund University (Sweden) and Copenhagen University (Denmark). e-mail: [email protected]
MICHAEL JOHN BOLAND Executive Officer and Principal Scientist - Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology – New Zealand Prof. Boland works in Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biological Sciences, Biologically Active Molecules, Characterisation of Biological Macromolecules, Chemical Science, Dietetics and Nutrigenomics, Enzymes, Medical and Health Sciences, Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry, Nutrition and Dietetics, Nutritional Physiology, Proteins and Peptides. e-mail: [email protected]
PAULO JOSÉ DO AMARAL SOBRAL Full Professor - Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos – USP - Brazil Professor Sobral works in Food Engineering, with emphasis in physical chemistry of foods and active packaging for foods, focused on the following subjects: macromolecules, edible and/or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, and drying of foods and glass transition of freeze-dried pulps of tropical fruits. e-mail: [email protected]
RAQUEL FRANCO LEAL Associate Professor - Department of Surgery - Faculty of Medical Sciences – UNICAMP - Brazil. Professor Leal has a degree in Medical Sciences from UNICAMP (2001), medical residency in General Surgery (2004) and Coloproctology (2006). Master (2007), and PhD (2009) in Surgery at UNICAMP. She performed her postdoctoral studies at the Cellular Signaling Laboratory of FCM / UNICAMP from 2010 to 2011 and at the Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona from 2012 to 2014. She also has a PhD in Coloproctology - UNICAMP (2015). She is a full member of the Brazilian Society of Coloproctology, member of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology, International Society of University Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ISUCRS) and honorary member of the Brazilian Association of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease (ABCD). She is also member of the Group of Studies on Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Brazil (GEDIIB), European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and Pan American Crohn's Colitis Organization (PANCCO). e-mail: [email protected]
ROSIANE LOPES DA CUNHA Associate Professor I - Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos - FEA-UNICAMP - Brazil Professor Cunha works in Food Science and Technology area, focused on process engineering and physical properties, mainly: rheology, mechanical properties, gelation, emulsification process and/or protein-polysaccharide interactions. She has participated and coordinated research projects in cooperation with European universities in Portugal, Italy, Netherlands and Switzerland. Most of her ongoing projects are related to food colloids and biopolymers focused on their functionality aiming to develop new materials and processes. That includes the development of new textures based on oleogels and hydrogels, nanotechnological encapsulation systems (liposomes, electrostatic complexes and lipids carriers); and also the development of encapsulation processes using the concept of multiple emulsions, biopolymeric layer by layer gelation or microfluidics. e-mail: [email protected]
Class Subject BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON OBESITY – Prof. Dr. Mário Roberto Maróstica Júnior - FEA/UNICAMP – Brazil CRAVING CALORIES - Prof. Dr. Yvan de Araujo - Yale University, USA CURRENT ‘STATE-OF-THE-ART’ IN EDIBLE OIL STRUCTURING - Prof. Dr. Ashok Patel -International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory - Portugal ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES - Prof. Dr. Raquel Franco Leal - FCM/UNICAMP - Brazil HANDS ON IN A TIM SIMULATOR: BUILDING OF A SYSTEM - Prof. Dr. Rosiane Lopes da Cunha FEA/UNICAMP - Brazil HOW FOOD BEHAVES IN THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - Prof. Dr. Mike Boland - Massey University - New Zealand HUMAN DIGESTION: A CRITICAL COMPARISON OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS - Prof. Dr. Mike Boland - Massey University - New Zealand HUMAN MICROBIOME - LINKING LONG-TERM DIETARY PATTERNS WITH GUT MICROBIAL ENTEROTYPES - Prof. Dr. Christian Hoffmann - FCF/USP - Brazil INTEGRATING CONSUMER ATTITUDE, EXPECTATION AND AFFECTION IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION ON HEALTHY EATING - Prof. Dr. Jorge Herman Behrens - FEA/UNICAMP Brazil MURINE MICROBIOME AS A CRITERION OF WHOLESOMENESS - IMPACT OF PROTEIN TYPE ON THE GUT MICROBIOME - Prof. Dr. Jaime Amaya Farfan - FEA/UNICAMP – Brazil POTENTIAL SENSORIAL STRATEGIES TO INCREASE FOOD SATIETY - Prof. Dr. Mike Boland - Massey University - New Zealand RHEOLOGICAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES AND FOOD SATIETY - Prof. Dr. Paulo Sobral FZEA/USP - Brazil SUMMARY AND PROPOSALS FOR THE REVERSE ENGINEERING OF PROCESSED FOODS - Prof. Dr. Miriam D. Hubinger - FEA/UNICAMP - Brazil (chair) THE IMPACT OF INGREDIENTS AND PROCESSES ON FORMULATION STRATEGIES - Prof. Dr. Antonio Vicente - University of Minho - Portugal THE IMPACT OF INGREDIENTS AND PROCESSES ON FORMULATION STRATEGIES - Prof. Dr. Rosiane Lopes da Cunha - FEA/UNICAMP – Brazil THE ISSUE OF ULTRA PROCESSED FOODS AND PUBLIC HEALTH - Prof. Dr. Jaime Amaya Farfan FEA/UNICAMP – Brazil THE SHIME SYSTEM - Prof. Dr. Katia Sivieri - UNESP/Araraquara - Brazil WHY ARE WE TOLERANT TO XENOBIOTICS? THOUGHT PROVOKING OBSERVATIONS - Prof. Dr. Jaime Amaya Farfan - FEA/UNICAMP – Brazil
Student´s Abstracts ³¹P NMR FOR DETECTING PHOSPHATE SPECIES IN PROCESSED CHEESE ANA P. BARTH1*, CLÁUDIO F. TORMENA2, WALKIRIA H. VIOTTO1. 1School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Nuclear magnetic resonance of ³¹P is a powerful tool for detecting the phosphorus atoms in a polyphosphate chains. The use of NMR has advantages, such as rapid analysis, simple sample preparation and, in the same spectrum, it is possible to detect and quantify different phosphorylated compounds by integrating the corresponding signal areas. The objective of this study was to identify the phosphorous species in a polyphosphate blend used as emulsifying salt in a model processed cheese. The NMR spectra were obtained on a BRUKER Avance III, operating at the frequency of 500 MHz for the 1H nucleus and of 202.35 MHz for the 31P nucleus. Capillaries containing D2O were used to carry out the lock using the deuterium nucleus (2H). Aqueous solutions (10%) of sodium orthophosphate, disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate and pentasodium tripolyphosphate were used as standards for the assignment of chemical shifts. The commercial polyphosphate blend was diluted with distilled water to a final concentration of 2,3%. The model processed cheese was manufactured using 2,3% of polyphosphate blend and anhydrous ingredients. In water, the polyphosphate spectrum presented a series of complex signals in three distinct regions of chemical shift: around 1 ppm, between -5 ppm and -9 ppm and between -21 ppm and -24 ppm. From the spectra obtained with the pure salt standards, the singlet at 1.44 ppm corresponds to the orthophosphate anion signal. The singlet at -7.73 ppm corresponds to the two phosphorus atoms of the pyrophosphate (P2O7)-4, due the conformation and symmetrical structure. Centered at -7.44 ppm, a doublet corresponds to the phosphorus atoms of terminal positions of longchain polyphosphates (P> 3). The ³¹P NMR spectrum region between -21 ppm and -24 ppm corresponds to the signals of the internal phosphorus atoms of different polyphosphate chains. In the model processed cheese, it was possible to identify the signals corresponding to the orthophosphate and the long-chain polyphosphates (P > 3). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using ³¹P NMR nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the characterization of food samples containing sodium polyphosphates, such as processed cheese. A NEW WAY TO PRODUCE CACHAÇA LILIAN C. K. BIASI1*, FABIO R. M. BATISTA2, ANTONIO J. A. MEIRELLES1. 1School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Brazil; 2School of Engineering of Lorena, University of São Paulo - USP, Lorena-SP, Brazil. *[email protected]
Cachaça is a typical Brazilian distillated spirit. It is produced by continuous or batch distillation of the so called wine, namely the fermented must of sugar cane juice. A typical industrial continuous distillation process is conducted in columns containing about 21 trays. The wine is distillated until an alcoholic graduation between 38 and 54º GL. Although distillation is an old technique widely used for centuries, it is known for having high-energy demand. In this way, parastillation columns were first proposed with the aim of reducing energy consumption. This kind of technique consists of splitting the vapor flow inside the column into two parallel and ascending streams that contact with one unique descending liquid flow. This arrangement increases the number of theoretical stages per unit of column height, promoting a lower pressure drop and the possibility of reducing the energy demand and/or equipment cost. The purpose of this project was to compare the traditional distillation and parastillation processes, applied to cachaça production. A multicomponent mixture containing ethanol and water as major compounds and others three minor ones (congeners) represented the alcoholic wine. The simulations were conducted using the MatLab® software with the implementation and adaptation of the algorithm proposed by Naphtali & Sandholm. Energy consumption and ethanol separation were investigated, analyzing the influence of some operating parameters, such as reflux ratio, number of stages and feed position. The results showed that it is possible to achieve the same degree of separation using a smaller parastillation column compared to the conventional distillation column. It is also possible to reduce energy demand by using a parastillation column with same height than the conventional one. Financial Support: CNPq (140212/2017-5) and FAPESP (2014/21252-0).
ADDING BLENDS OF CaCl2, KCl AND NaCl TO REDUCE SODIUM IN JERKED BEEF: EFFECTS ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ALONG PROCESSING. VITOR A. VIDAL, CAMILA S. PAGLARINI, JOÃO P. BIACHI, MARISTELA M. OZAKI, MARISE A. R. POLLONIO*. University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Salted meat products, such as jerked beef, are widely consumed all over the world, especially in Brazil. In general, they have important nutritional properties, however, they have been criticized due to high sodium content. Thereby, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence adding a mixture of salts (potassium chloride and calcium chloride - KCl and CaCl2) as substitutes of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the color, pH, water activity (aw) and sodium content during wet and dry salting steeps in jerked beef. Four treatments were developed: FC1 (100% NaCl); F1 (50% NaCl and 50% KCl); F2 (50% NaCl and 50% CaCl2) and F3 (50% NaCl, 25% KCl and 25% CaCl2, calculated on ionic strength base regarding NaCl). The color parameters were measured by L*, a* and b* values, and the sodium content was analysed by ICP OES. Regarding pH, there was no significant differences in both wet and dry salting methods. The treatment F2 (50% NaCl and 50% CaCl2) reported the highest value of aw after dry salting; this may have occurred due to the high dehydrating effect of CaCl2, which caused a rapid dehydration at the surface and, thus, damaging the exit of water trapped in the middle of the meat matrix. The sodium reduction observed in the wet and dry salting stages significantly affected (p <0.05) the sodium content in the final product. After the dry salting, treatments containing salt substitutes (KCl and CaCl2) obtained a significantly reduced sodium content (p <0.05) compared to control treatment (FC1). The L* (luminosity) was higher (p <0.05) and a* (red color intensity) was lower (P <0.05) in treatments F2 (50% NaCl and 50% CaCl2) and F3 % NaCl, 25% KCl and 25% CaCl2), probably by the presence of the divalent CaCl2 salt. There was no significant differences (p <0.05) in b* values (yellow color intensity) among treatments. According to the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the use of NaCl and KCl blend in the elaboration of jerked beef is a good strategy to reduce sodium in the final product, however the sensorial acceptance must be studied before to recommend this reformulation to meat industry. Financial Support: CNPq
ADDITION OF SALMON ENHANCED THE IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY OF CAROTENOIDS IN A VEGETABLE SALAD DANIELE B. RODRIGUES1,2*, CHUREEPORN CHITCHUMROONCHOKCHAI2, MARK L. FAILLA2, LILIAN R.B. MARIUTTI1, ADRIANA Z. MERCADANTE1. 1University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA. *[email protected]
Epidemiological studies have indicated strong association between intake of fruits and vegetables rich on carotenoids and reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. However, in order to exert health-promoting biological activities, carotenoids must be first bioaccessible. While the impact of food processing, food matrix and presence of stimulators on carotenoid bioaccessibility has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of interactions due to co-consumed food has remained largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess whether the addition of salmon to a raw-mixed vegetable salad may affect the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids. The salad consisted of carrots (27%), baby spinach (30%), cherry tomatoes (43%) and 2.5% of soybean oil prepared with and without pan-fried wild salmon (0.24 g salmon/g final meal). Samples were subjected to simulate oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion set up to fed state conditions. A selective extraction with hexane and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was adapted to separately analyze astaxanthin in digested salads as this carotenoid was either degraded under saponification conditions or co-eluted with chlorophylls in non-saponified extract. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Lutein, astaxanthin, -carotene, -carotene and lycopene were quantified in mixed micelle fraction following in vitro digestion. Astaxanthin was successfully extracted with DMF while interfering chlorophylls and carotenes were retained in the hexane fraction. The efficiency of partitioning of astaxanthin in mixed micelles reached 76% after digestion of salad containing salmon. The extent of micellarization of xanthophylls consistently exceeded those of -carotene and carotene, which exceeded lycopene, regardless of the salad type analyzed. Addition of salmon to salad increased bioaccessibility of lutein (from 59 to 73%), -carotene (from 10 to 28%) and -carotene (from 16 to 32%), while that of lycopene remained constant (3%). Although several factors may have contributed to the differences on bioaccessibility values, carotenoid micellarization could have been likely promoted by increased amount of oil in the salad, intrinsically added through salmon. In summary, pan-fried wild salmon was reiterated as a dietary source of bioaccessible astaxanthin and increased overall carotenoid bioaccessibility when co-digested with commonly consumed vegetables rich on carotenoids. These in vitro findings suggest that we would potentially improve the amount of carotenoids available to absorption (from salad plus astaxanthin) and
to exert their bioactivity by adding salmon to a mixed-raw vegetable salad, besides the nutrients and other health promoting components such as omega-3 fatty acids and bioactive peptides present in this product. Financial Support: Grant #2015/15238-8, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).
APPLICATION OF AN IN VITRO GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION MODEL TO STUDY THE INTERACTION OF FOLIC WITH EGG WHITE NANOCARRIERS CAROLINA ARZENI1*, ANA M. R. PILOSOF1. 1Universidad de Buenos Aires – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. *[email protected]
Food supplementation with bioactive compounds implies a challenge due to their instability to physical and chemical factors. Furthermore, after ingestion, the bioactive must be released in specific sites of the human body. For this purpose, with the aid of nanoparticles, bioactives can be encapsulated or bound to produce nanocarriers, which provide an adequate means of transport that ensures their integrity and controlled release. The objective of this work was to evaluate the profile of digestion products and the biological activity of folic acid (FA) in egg white (EW) nanocarriers designed to deliver this vitamin. The binding of FA with two kinds of high intensity ultrasound-made EW nanoparticles (US and TS) was promoted to generate FA nanocarriers (USF and TSF). Then, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the samples was performed. After that, the pattern of digestion was determined by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Additionally, tricine-SDS PAGE electrophoresis was also used to separate proteins and peptides of the samples. After in vitro digestion, the peptides profile determined by RP-HPLC showed apparent differences between FA nanocarriers and nanoparticles samples. Slight differences were observed on tricine-SDS PAGE gels between egg white nanocarriers with or without FA before digestion. After this process, no significant differences were found among samples. Binding of FA to EW nanoparticles also proved to be beneficial for the degradation of digestion-resistant EW proteins. EW nanocarriers would constitute an adequate system for the preservation, transport and target delivery of FA. Financial Support: Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT-2014-3668).
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS IN FRESH CUT KIWIFRUITS AND PRESERVATION DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE
CONCENTRATION OF TO IMPROVE THEIR
GABRIELA I. DENOYA1, KATERIN Y. GUZMÁN2, GUSTAVO A. POLENTA1, NÉSTOR PELLEGRINO2, LUIS C. SANOW1, SERGIO R. VAUDAGNA1,3*. 1Instituto Tecnología de Alimentos, INTA Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2FCEyN/FFyB-UBA, CABA, Argentina; 3CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. *[email protected]
Kiwifruit is one of the fruits with major profitability and potential for growing in Argentina. Taking this into account, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the immersion in CaCl2 aqueous solution, with and without heat treatment, the subsequent packing and the application of High Pressure Processing (HPP) on the antioxidant compounds of fresh-cut kiwifruits and their preservation during refrigerated storage. For this purpose, kiwifruit slices (40x20 mm) were subjected to the following treatments: A) immersion in 0.5%CaCl2 (aq.) for 1 min at 60°C and B) immersion in 0.5%CaCl2 (aq.) for 1 min at 25°C. Slices from both treatments were packed with films of different barrier to oxygen: T1- A) and T1-B) Cryovac-BB2620 Oxygen transmission rate (OTR): 6-14cc/m2/24hs (high) T2-A) and T2-B) Cryovac-BM2500-OTR: 20-60cc/m2/24hs (intermediate), T3-A) and T3-B) Cryovac-PD960-OTR:6000-8000 cc/m2/24hs (low). Then, samples of each treatment were evaluated during storage at 4°C after 1, 10 and 20 days. In addition, T1-A and T1-B kiwifruits slices were subjected to 600 MPa-5min to evaluate the effect of HPP on these products (PA and PB respectively). The following determinations were carried out over the samples: atmosphere composition with a gas analyzer, calcium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy, ethanol content by an enzymatic reaction (to control if a fermentative process was induced because of the low oxygen content of the packages), total phenols by Folin Ciocalteau method, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ABTS assay and ascorbic acid by HPLC. Results showed that all the samples subjected to thermal treatment and /or to HPP presented higher (p<0.05) calcium content than the plant material. The C02 levels were maintained<20% and the O2 ones >5% for the PA and PB and T3 treatments during the 20 days of storage while T1 and T2 were CO2>70% and O2<1% at the end of storage. Regarding to ethanol content, samples packed with high or intermediate oxygen permeability increased its content significantly during storage; T3 presented an increase in ethanol but with a lower rate while HPP-treated samples presented a basal concentration during the whole storage. Regarding the total phenols content and ABTS assay, HPP-treated samples presented the highest values during the 20 days and the samples packed
in the low oxygen barrier the ones that decreased more the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity during storage. It seems that the heat treatment improved the total phenols content because the heat treated samples (A) presented higher values at all the days evaluated in all the treatments. In the case of DPPH assay, the only treatment that presented lower values at the end of the storage was T3, the other treatments had a similar value all the days evaluated. Regarding to ascorbic acid content, there were no significant differences between samples at the first days of analysis, but at the end of the storage the samples packed in low barrier films presented significant differences in comparison to the HPP-treated samples packed in high barrier films. The packing with films of higher barrier to oxygen provoked an important change in the atmosphere and increased the fermentation process of the product, but better preserved antioxidant compounds during storage. The application of 600 MPa for 5 min presented high antioxidant content and stabilized the package atmosphere composition and ascorbic acid content, without induction of fermentation because of low oxygen atmosphere of the package. The application of HPP and heat treatments could be a good strategy to preserve and to improve the antioxidant compounds of fresh cut fruits. Financial Support: PNAIyAV 1130033, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, (INTA).
APPLICATION OF UNDERVALUED NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE FORMULATION OF NUTRITIONAL AND NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS FOR HEALTHY FOOD FORMULATIONS FRANCO E. VASILE1,3*, MARIA A. JUDIS1, MARIA F. MAZZOBRE2,3. 1Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral, Chaco, Argentina; 2Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 3Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científico Técnicas CONICET, Argentina. *[email protected]
The development of healthy foods has focused its attention on the replacement of synthetic additives for natural ones, which have a more positive image for a growing market increasingly aware onto effects of nutrition on health and wellness. In this context, the research of currently wasted natural resources, with technological food purposes, arises as an interesting alternative to obtain ingredients or additives with useful functional properties, able to be applied in the developed of innovative food products. This is the case of the exuded gum obtained from Prosopis alba, a tree widely spread in the rural areas, at north east region of Argentina. Under environmental stress conditions, Prosopis alba trees excrete a soluble and viscous hydrocolloid. In previous reports, we explored the physicochemical, nutritional, toxicological and functional properties of purified Prosopis alba exudate gum (G), finding that it shows several similarities with commercially available gums. This results have promoted the research of G applications in new technologies as microencapsulation of nutraceutical compounds. Based on this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of G as encapsulating agent in the stabilization of essential fatty acids and antioxidant compounds for the formulation of nutraceutical ingredients. Two approaches for bioactive protection were employed. One was the stabilization of essential fatty acids from fish oil in polyelectrolyte beads systems containing G as wall material component. For this, fish oil emulsions were prepared by dispersion of oil fraction (10% w/w) into aqueous solutions of alginate (1% w/w) or alginate (1% w/w) and G (2% w/w). The resultant emulsions were introduced by dripping in a CaCl solution (2% w/v), and generated beads were then transferred to a chitosan solution (1% in HCl 0.1M) to promote the electrostatic adsorption of a chitosan layer. Beads were vacuum dried and storage in N2 atmosphere until analysis. By other side, antioxidant compounds extracted from Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyxes in aqueous media (100°C, 10 min) were spray dried in presence of G and maltodextrin (MD) as carriers, in a final rate of 2:1 Jamaica dry solids: carrier blend (15% G, 85% MD). Additionally, an aqueous extract without excipients was spray dried and used as control. Microparticles obtained from spray drying process were stored in hermetic and opaque bags until analysis. In both cases, functional properties of G exerted a positive effect on structure, protection and stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds. Particularly, good emulsifying properties of G, resulted in stabilized fish oil emulsions, providing capsules with high load capacity (77%) and higher encapsulation yield (89%) regard to the control (70% and 71% respectively). Gum-alginate interactions, improved the oil retention in the inner beads structure, delaying the oxidative damage during storage. This results could also be explained considering the antioxidants naturally present in G. In presence of G, microparticles obtained by spray drying of Jamaica aqueous extract show the highest encapsulation yield (80%) and similar final anthocyanin content (17 mg/100 g Jamaica solids) regard to control sample. G decreased the powder hygroscopicity and improved the physical structure of resulting in spherical shaped microparticles with good flow properties, while control sample shown a collapsed structure with bridges formation. Present results are promising and allowed considering P. alba gum as a novel non-conventional polyelectrolyte in the design of microstructure for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds for nutritional nutraceutical ingredient formulation with the added benefits to taking advantage of an available resource currently untapped. Financial Support: UNCAUS, UBA, CONICET.
BIOACCESIBILITY AND IN VITRO RELEASE KINETICS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED TO DIETARY FIBER IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L) ‘ATAULFO’ BYPRODUCTS FRANCISCO J. BLANCAS-BENITEZ1, SONIA G. SÁYAGO-AYERDI1*. 1Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic, Laboratorio Integral de Investigación en Alimentos, Av Tecnológico 2595, Col Lagos del Country, Tepic Nayarit, 63175. *[email protected]
Tropical fruits, such as, mango (Mangifera indica L.) have been recognized as an important source of phenolic compounds (PC), and its consumption has been associated to reduce the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases. During the processing of mango, large amounts of by-products, was generated (40-60%), they may contain dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic compounds (PC), however; little is known about the type of PC which are present in mango by-products, and even more about the effects of consumption of a full matrix, can have on the bioaccesibility of the PC´s presents in mango fruit. The biological properties of PC depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PC released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PC associated with DF and the PC kinetics release in mango (Mangifera indica L.) ‘Ataulfo’ by-products in an in vitro digestion model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min−1 in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased during the digestion reaching a value of 2.87 mmol TE min−1 at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min−1) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min−1, and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min−1 at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and could exert different potential health benefits Keywords: Mangifera indica, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, bioaccessibility. BIOACCESSIBILITY OF IN NATURA AND FERMENTED JUSSARA ANNA R. C. BRAGA1,2*, VERIDIANA V. DE ROSSO2. 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, Brazil; 2Department of Bioscience, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, Brazil. *[email protected]
There is growing interest in fruit consumption primarily due to their nutritional value and beneficial properties of health properties. Fruits contain bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid, among others. Anthocyanins have been found to play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and to be involved in several different events, such as the prevention of DNA damage, estrogenic activity, enzymatic inhibition, anti-inflammation response and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Despite the beneficial properties of anthocyanins, their effectiveness at preventing or treating a range of diseases depends on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. In addition, bacteria possessing an enzymatic system able to metabolize anthocyanins may play a major role in the production of compounds with different bioavailabilities and biological activities because hydrolysis of anthocyanin glycosides is proposed as the first step for subsequent bacterial degradation and the formation of a set of new metabolites. The aim of the present study was to assess the amount of anthocyanin from jussara pulp in natura and fermented after gastric simulation, in order to better understand if the bioactive compounds are in dead available for further absorption. The jussara pulp was obtained directly from producers linked to the Jussara Project from Ubatuba City - São Paulo - Brazil. Lactobacillus deubruekii was used for fermentation of jussara pulp, in which, a cultivation medium was composed of 20% jussara pulp added to 10% glucose, and the pH was adjusted to 5.6 (the natural pH of the pulp). The operational conditions were 28 °C and 100 rpm for 48 h. After the fermentation process, simulated oral, gastric and small intestinal phases of digestion of samples were performed and after each digestion phase a sample (triplicate) was collected to determine the remain anthocyanin. The jussara extracts were obtained from digestion phases and concentrated for injection into HPLC-PDA employing chromatographic conditions optimized for quantification these compounds. Bioaccessibility refers to the transfer of the anthocyanin from the food matrix for delivery to the brush border surface of absorptive epithelial cells located in the small intestine. The bioaccessibility of anthocyanins is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the anthocyanin, food matrix, style of processing, and meal composition. In vitro simulation of the oral, gastric and small intestinal phases of digestion was performed with jussara before and after fermentation to evaluate their bioaccessibility. Recovery of cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside (jussara majoritarian anthocyanins) were
determined and losses that occurred during the digestion of the jussara in natura were much larger than those of the fermented jussara. In the oral phase for example, there was a loss of 94.7% of cyanidin 3-rutinoside considering the in natura jussara, while considering the fermented jussara the loss was 76%. The jussara pulp anthocyanins, both in natura and fermented, are bioaccessible, since the majoritarian anthocyanins were determined after digestion in vitro simulation. Financial Support: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the grant nº 2014/09301-6, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).
BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OILS OBTAINED FROM THE CITRUS BY-PRODUCTS CO-EXTRACTION USING A MODIFIED SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE JOHN NDAYISHIMIYE, DEOK J. LIM, BYUNG S. CHUN*. Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea. *[email protected]
The processing of citrus fruits into juice and other products leaves massive by-products (mainly peels and seeds). As a consequence, this not only wastes useful materials, but also may pose some pollution, disposal, and other related environmental problems. These citrus by-products can be valorized since they contain a wide range of healthy bioactive compounds (like phenolics, flavonoids, tocopherols, phytosterols, terpenoids, and other volatile compounds). The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of natural products has recently drawn many researchers due to its advantages over conventional methods including its eco-friendliness, the minimum degradation of bioactive compounds, the prospect of getting solvent-free products and high selectivity due to manipulation of extraction conditions and the possibility of changing its polarity using a cosolvent. Even though many studies have been dedicated to the study of citrus by-products, to the best of our knowledge no such study on the bioactive compounds and bioactivity of oils resulting from a combination of CP and CS either by using neat SC-CO2 or modified SC-CO2 has emerged. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the impact of combining the citrus seeds (CS) and citrus peels (CP) on the bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of resulting oils obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and ethanolic modified SC-CO2 so that those by-products can be valorized effectively. The sample materials were citrus seeds (CS), citrus peels (CP) and mixture (MX) of CP and CS. The extraction conditions were 200 bar and 300 bar at 45 °C for neat SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+ethanol. The yield ranged from 1.57 to 23.04% and showed to increase significantly (p < 0.05) by increasing pressure. This increase of yield due to the increase of pressure might be justified by the fact that when the pressure increased; it causes the augmentation of CO2 density, which thereby raises the solubility of analytes in CO2, which thereupon increases the yield. The total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined and CP oils showed higher total phenolic content (CP oil>MX oil> CS oil), whereas CS oils showed higher total flavonoid content (CS oil>MX oil> CP oil). Interestingly enough, the addition of ethanol showed to increase significantly (p < 0.05) the TPC and TFC regardless of sample material. This might be attributed to the reason that since the phenolic and flavonoid compounds are polar in nature, the addition of ethanol to SC-CO2 could ameliorate the extraction efficiency of those compounds by accelerating their desorption process.The tocopherol and phytosterol content were analyzed using HPLC, and ranged between 0.93±0.1 to 33.8±0.2 mg/100 g of oil and 90.96±0.02 to 367.76±1.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Also, αtocopherol and sitosterol were respectively the main compounds of the extracted oils. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assay and the oils extracted by SC-CO2+ethanol at 200 bar showed higher activity with IC50 values of 0.52 and 0.53 mg/ml for CP and MX, respectively, for DPPH assay. For antimicrobial activity, the diameter of the zone of inhibition was performed by the disk diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by 96-flat well microtiter broth dilution method. The MX oils showed higher antimicrobial activity and the oils were more susceptible for gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria, which might be ascribed to the fact that gram-negative bacteria have an external membrane enclosing the cell wall, which limits the lipophilic compounds of the oil to diffuse through its lipopolysaccharide covering, thus reducing the antimicrobial activity. Overall, the citrus by-products can be valorized by combining CS and CP which could give the oils with higher bioactivity to be used in many applications (food, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and etc.). BIOFORTIFICATION OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS WITH SELENIUM: EFFECT ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY 1*
PATRICIA BACHIEGA , JOCELEM M. SALGADO , MARESSA C. MORZELLE , MARCO A.Z. ARRUDA ; ERALDO L. LEHMANN , SEVERINO M. DE 1 1 2 ALENCAR . Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”/Universidade de São Paulo (Esalq/USP), Piracicaba, Brazil; Universidade Federal 3 do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Brazil; Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Broccoli is a functional food and can accumulate selenium (Se). However, biofortification with Se may alter the profile and amount of bioactive compounds. The influence of Se treatment (50 µM sodium selenate) on the antioxidant activity was
explored. The broccoli seedlings were produced in black polyethylene. These plants remained for 30 days in an arched agricultural greenhouse. The treatments consisted of a control (distilled water) and 50 µM sodium selenate and were applied when the seedlings were at 15 days of germination. The total Se contents were determined using an ICP-MS quadrupolo. For determination of antioxidant activity ethanolic extracts (50%) were produced. The methods used to determine the antioxidant potential of the broccoli seedlings were: DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP. In addition, the On-line HPLC-DAD-ABTS radical -1 scavenging activity assay was also used. For DPPH, ABTS and ORAC the results were expressed in μM Trolox 100 g FW. For -1 FRAP, the results were expressed in µM ferrous sulphate g FW. All of the determinations were carried out in triplicate, and the results were expressed as an average ± standard deviation (SD). The difference between the means of the treatments with and without Se was tested using a Student’s t-test. Broccoli seedlings that received the sodium selenate solution presented a Se -1 content of 23.61 ± 1.19 µg Se g fresh weight (FW). The biofortification influences on antioxidant activity are described in Table 3. The broccoli seedlings biofortified with Se as sodium selenate exhibited the best performance in relation to all synthetic free radicals (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). The capacity of inactivation of reactive species derived from an oxygen radical, such as ROO·, was also evaluated. The results obtained for broccoli seedlings with sodium selenate exhibited higher scavenging capacity against ROO· than the control. The higher antioxidant activity of the seedlings treated with Se compared to the control treatment can be explained by the increase in the content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds that were also observed in this treatment, since these compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity in this plant. On-line HPLC–DAD–ABTS method is the new method has shown higher sensitivity, selectivity, and relative simplicity for antioxidant capacity analysis in various plant extracts. Furthermore, these methods present, as one of the main advantages, the possibility of demonstrating the individual contributions of each phenolic compound found in the studied matrix. This work is the first to demonstrate, with the on-line HPLC-DAD-ABTS method, the influence of Se-biofortification in broccoli in the individual contribution of phenolic compounds and consequently, in their antioxidant activity. Eleven compounds had ABTS scavenging capacity and, regardless of treatment, the samples exhibited similar chromatographic profiles. From the three identified phenolic acids (p-coumaric, transferulic and caffeic phenolic) in the sample of broccoli seedlings, only trans-ferulic acid presented antioxidant activity in the on-1 line HPLC–DAD–ABTS method. In the control treatment, this compound presents 6.96 ± 0.35 µmol Trolox 100 g FW for a control, contributing to 9.45% of the total antioxidant activity. In the sodium selenate treatment (7.72 ± 0.29 µmol Trolox 100 g 1 + FW), the contribution was 9.71%. The p-coumaric and caffeic acids did not exhibit ABTS scavenging capacities. In conclusion, the addition of sodium selenate as inorganic Se increased of the antioxidant activity and the trans-ferulic acid was the only one to present antioxidant activity in the on-line HPLC–DAD–ABTS method. -LACTOGLOBULIN AND GELATIN AS CARRIERS FOR FOLIC ACID: INFLUENCE OF THE BINDING ON IN VITRO BIOACCESSIBILITY OF THE VITAMINE PAULA D. ZEMA1*, CAROLINA ARZENI1, ANA M.R. PILOSOF1. 1CONICET – University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. *[email protected]
There is an increasing interest in the role of food m aterials in enhancing the nutritional value of foods and in preventing diseeases. It has been reported that food fortification with folic acid (FA) could improve its intake in vulnerable groups, preventing its deficiency, for example at preganancy early stages, which can cause neural tube defects, as spina bífida and and anencephaly. In other life phases, folates can prevent cardioavascular diseases, Alzheimer and certain types of cancer.The ablity of some food proteins to bind FA, acting as carriers, and therefore, protecting it from processing conditions has been previously reported. In this work, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), and an acid gelation of porcine origin (AG) were evaluated as FA carriers. Variable protein and FA concentration systems were studied at pH 7 and 3. Particle size distribuition was determined by dynamic and static light scattering. The percentage of FA bound to each protein was evaluated by ultrafiltration, quantifying the free vitamin spectrophotometrically. It was found to be nearly 100% for pH 3 systems while at pH 7 was 0% for the β-lg and less than 40% for the AG. FA interaction with β-lg and AG would be electrostatic and reversible at pH 7, which would be of particular significance to the bioactive absorption in the organism. Then, na in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the samples performed. After that, the digestion products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The release of FA from thei protein carriers after the digestion process is na indication that FA would be bioaccessible in the site of absorption. β-lg and AG would constitute an adequate system for the preservation, transport and target delivery of FA. Financial Support: This work has been done with the support of the University of Buenos Aires (Grant numbers: 20020130100524BA)
CELL WALL MATERIALS THE VEHICOLATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS: MECHANISMS AND MODELING OF KINETICS RELAESE ELISA ROCCHI*, LAURA PIAZZA. 1Department of Environmental Science and Policy (UniMI), Milan, Italy; *[email protected]
Cell walls in plants are polymeric composite systems, which determine the textural attributes of vegetal tissues. In recent years a new approach based on solvent extraction from vegetal sources has allowed to obtain a new family of structured hydrocolloids, namely cell wall materials (CWM), which have found application in food formulation. The natural supramolecular organization is maintained during the extraction process and imparts them peculiar technological performances. In particular, one of the main advantages of such biological systems is multifunctionality, that is their ability to perform multiple tasks contextually. CWM added to foods are mainly regarded as swelling and thickening agent, and to date the research activity has been centered on mechanical features in view of their use food texture modulator. But once extracted CWM can be considered as an assemble of small porous hollow elements, which is potentially able to protect and vehicle bioactive sensitive molecules. Thus, understanding the diffusion mechanisms across these self-assembled structure opens perspectives of use CWM as carrier materials. The development of a delivery system require a fundamental understanding of release mechanism of active compounds through the matrix. However, at our knowledgethe absence of kinetics studies of release from cell wall structures means a complete lack of information about processes driving retention and release processes in such a complex system. Loading of particles was based on in-situ preparation of nanoparticles by a chemical reaction in the CWM interior. Firstly, a complex of ionic salts (methylene blue and fluorescein sodium salt) was used as a probe model compound for the set-up of the system and to mimic the release of low water-soluble drugs in time. The release was monitored both in water and simulated digestive fluids, in order to assess CWM behavior both in process and digestive simulated conditions. Further, ascorbic acid was selected as encapsulated bioactive, given its important nutritional role and in light of extremely sensitiveness to external stimuli. Kinetics models were fitted to the experimental data for release kinetics’ prediction, beyond providing an indication of prevalent mechanisms involved in the release process. Our findings point out that a pseudo-Fickian diffusion is the main mechanism responsible for the release of both fluorescein salt and ascorbate from CWM dispersed in water, while an “anomalous behavior” is observed in simulated gastric fluid likely due to relaxation phenomena occurring in the polymeric matrix. In addition, the ability of CWM to protect ascorbate from thermal degradation was assessed during a pasteurization treatment (15 min at 65 °C). Ascorbate in presence of CWM showed a reduction of the concentration value after thermal treatmnet (equal to 3% of the initial value) almost seven-fold lower than ascorbate pasteurized without protection. Results represent just a first insight into the complexity of phenomena involved, but pave the way for a deeper understanding toward the application of such materials as “second generation” ingredients in food manufactory. (These results are under publication) Financial Support: Ph.D scholarship funded by Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR).
CELLULAR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY BIOTRANSFORMED GRAPE POMACE EXTRACT IN CACO-2 CELLS
ISABELA M. MARTINS1*, JEFFREY B. BLUMBERG2, CHUNG-YEN O. CHEN2, JULIANA A. MACEDO1, GABRIELA A. MACEDO1. 1University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Tufts University, Boston, USA. *[email protected]
Grape pomace (GP) is a polyphenolic-rich byproduct of wine production. As most polyphenolics are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, treatment with hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase GP functionalities. Tannin acyl hydrolases (tannases) can hydrolyze the ester bond and the depside bond of polyphenols, releasing smaller compounds and transforming glycosides into aglycones. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of tannase-treated GP (TTGP) on inflamed Caco-2 cells. GP was treated with tannase for 5 h at 40 °C and pH 5.5. TTGP contained more quercetin and less quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, more gallic acid, myricetin, protocatechuic acid, 3.4dihydroxyphenilacetic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, and ρ-coumaric acid than GP. Also, TTGP displayed 57 and 215% greater total antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ORAC analyses), respectively. Both GP and TTGP at concentrations ≤200 μg/mL (dry extract wt/v) did not change Caco-2 cell viability. GP and TTGP at 200 μg/mL showed comparable cellular antioxidant activity, abolishing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by AAPH (50 μM). Furthermore, after 6-h pretreatment with the extracts and challenge with pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, TTGP at 200 μg/mL decreased prostaglandin E (PGE2) production by 105% and interleukin 8 (IL-8) by 51% in Caco-2 cells. TTGP was more potent than GP in the amelioration of IL-1β-induced inflammation. Therefore, TTGP exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in Caco-2 cells, and could be a potential functional ingredient for food and pharmaceutical products. Financial Support: CAPES and CNPq
CELLULOSE-BASED ACTIVE ORGANOPHYLIC CLAY
CÍCERO C. POLA1*, EBER A. A. MEDEIROS1, CAIO G. OTONI2, VICTOR G. L. SOUZA3 ALLAN R. F. MORAES1 , NILDA F. F. SOARES1. 1Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil; 2Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil; 3New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal. *[email protected]
Antimicrobial active films are a class of active packaging that denotes a promising means of increasing food safety by interacting with food and/or its surrounding environment aiming to retard, reduce, or even inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. This approach is of special interest to commonly spoiled foods, including meat, dairy, and bakery products as well as fruits and vegetables, and it contributes to reduction of additives in food, since the antimicrobial component is incorporated in the packaging instead be added directly in the food products. Among active compounds commonly used to produce antimicrobial packaging essential oils has been successfully applied against bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The aim of the present study was to produce active films based on cellulose acetate (CAc) incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO) and organophilic montmorillonite clay (MMT) to control the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. The films were produced by casting method. CAc was dissolved in acetone during 24 h at room temperature. Following, the OEO and MMT were added into the film-forming solution, homogenized, poured into glass plates, and then allowed to dry at room temperature for 6 h. The active films were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, TEM, mechanical resistance, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen transmission rate, thermal stability, and antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidium, and Rhizopus stolonifera. The CAc-based active films presented high antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogens, mainly in vapor phase, inhibiting the growth completely, which is extremely desirable since the direct contact is not required. MMT exhibit good dispersion in CAc matrix, resulting in a partially exfoliated conformation. In this way, MMT30B significantly increased films’ rigidity and thermal resistance while reduce OTR. OEO acted as plasticizer, facilitating MMT dispersion. Also, OEO increased extensibility and decreased WVTR of CAc-based films, increasing the water resistance. Both OEO and MMT slightly improved the thermal resistance of films. The active films developed here denote a potential packaging system for postharvest conservation purposes. The remarkable activity presented by the produced films, mainly when applied in vapor phase, demonstrate a wide range of possible applications, highlighting the potential use of this packaging at the food industry, namely to preserve fruits and vegetables. Financial Support: The authors would like to acknowledge FAPEMIG, Capes, CNPq, and Finep. C.C.P. received a scholarship from FAPEMIG (grant# 10173).
CHANGES ON RHEOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GELLAN GELS ENCAPSULATING ANTHOCYANINS AND ITS ACTION DURING IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY PROCESS TATIANA P. SANTOS1*, ROSIANE L. CUNHA1. 1University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Gellan gum is a natural biopolymer with innumerable applications as texture modulator, body agent and wall material of encapsulating systems for food and pharmaceutical applications. However active compounds can interact with gellan modifying their properties as texture and action during digestibility. Thus, our study aimed to incorporate anthocyanins from jabuticaba extract and calcium ions into gellan gels matrix in order to evaluate the differences between rheological and mechanical properties of gellan gels containing or not the extract. In addition, in vitro digestibility of these gels was analysed to determine the encapsulation degree according to different gels matrix. Rheological measurements showed clear differences between the gels, since jabuticaba extract addition promoted a network strengthening. Mechanical properties of gels showed that influence of jabuticaba extract and calcium ions depended on the initial composition of gellan solutions. Jabuticaba extract reinforced structure of gellan gels without calcium, but it did not change the hardness of gels with calcium. Gellan gels showed a good anthocyanins retention and release in digestibility process, nevertheless the delivery was more efficient in the calcium absence. In addition, besides their composition, size of gellan gels and digestibility process influenced anthocyanins release. Smaller gels (rectangles ~ 2-5 mm) presented a faster
release than bigger one (cylinders 20 mm height x 20 mm diameter). A comparison between static and dynamic in vitro digestibility showed a more pronounced anthocyanins release using dynamic conditions. Therefore, jabuticaba extract exerted influence on gellan gel properties, which can interfere on gels applications and stability. Thus, it is necessary to highlight that the adequate application of gellan gels in food and pharmaceutical products depends on careful studies about the interaction between encapsulated bioactives and gel matrix. Also, gellan gels demonstrated to act as a good candidate to anthocyanins carrier during gastrointestinal in vitro digestion. Financial Support: FAPESP grant number 2015/21677-4 and CNPq grant number 131524/2015-1.
CHARACTERISING THE INGREDIENT INTERACTIONS AND PARAMETER OF NOVEL BAKED PRODUCTS WITH REDUCED SUGAR
LAURA MILNER1,2, JOE KERRY2, MAURICE O’SULLIVAN2 and EIMEAR GALLAGHER1*. 1Department of Food Quality and Sensory Science, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland, 2Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland. *[email protected]
High saturated fat and sugar levels present a greater risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of obesity is increasing around the world and it is a significant public health problem in many countries. Several diseases are associated with a high level of sugar consumption, including; obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as caries and fatty liver. Therefore, low sugar intake is strongly recommended. This recommendation is addressed not only to the consumer, but also requires the food industry to reduce sugar content in processed food. Sweet baked products are enjoyed by consumers all over the world. All of these products incorporate significant levels of sugar as one of the basic ingredients. My current research is focusing on re-engineering and optimising novel, reduced sugar formulations for baked confectionary products. To date I have reduced and replaced sugar with natural alternatives and characterised the resulting nutritional compositions, processing parameters, staling kinetics, crumb imaging and sensory acceptance of the re-formulated products. Currently I am determining the physical and viscoelastic properties of the cake batters, using back extrusion and dynamic rheology techniques. This will elucidate results relating to the changes in viscosity and gel formation of the batters. My presentation in Brazil will consist of a compilation of all of my results for trials, in particular- initial ingredient re-formation, batter characteristics, baking results, shelf life recommendation, in vitro nutritional properties and optimised sensory attributes. Financial support: Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland.
ARTUR J. MARTINS1, MIGUEL A. CERQUEIRA2, ROSIANE L. CUNHA3 and ANTÓNIO A. VICENTE1. 1Center of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, Portugal; 3State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Uprising concern and consciousness of consumers, regarding saturated fat consumption, and the consequent demand for healthier food products are well visible in today’s society. Such continuous challenges question the food industry to quickly present solutions. Replace saturated fats in the food processing chain can be accomplished with the incorporation of edible oilbased gels or oleogels, which try to reproduce common fat structural and sensorial characteristics. Oil gelation effectiveness is managed by the gelators’ crystallization behaviour, where beeswax rises as a good candidate. Beeswax ability to structure oil when used in low concentrations, makes them a good solution to produce oleogels to be applied as fat replacers. On this work is reported the impact of carbon oil chain (medium chain triglycerides - MCT and long chain triglycerides - LCT) on beeswaxbased oleogels morphology, viscoelastic properties and crystallization. Viscoelastic behaviour (G’, G’’), directly related to gel structural network, was changed with increasing beeswax concentrations and with the oil type. Also changes in the typical lamellar crystal conformations were detected by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Moreover, the influence of a bioactive (βcarotene) in beeswax oleogels matrix was evaluated and results showed that the bioactive presence in gel structure, induced strength in the overall viscoelastic response, and an enhanced oil binding capacity of oleogels. Structural modification was proven by SAXS and X-ray diffraction. Results showed a diverse arrangement of the internal lamelar conformation and also relevant information about crystal polymorphism type. Regarding the oxidative response during storage, the results were similar between oleogels with and without the bioactive. Oleogels with liquid like behavior (i.e. 2 % w/w of beeswax) showed values 10-15 % lower than those obtained for oleogels with solid like behavior. The tailoring possibilities of beeswax oleogels and interesting morphological characteristics makes them suitable to act as fat replacers, food texturizers and carriers of bioactive compounds in foods. Financial Support: Artur Martins is recipient of a fellowship supported by a doctoral advanced training (call NORTE-69-2015-15) funded by the European Social Fund under the scope of Norte2020 – Programa Operacional Regional do Norte. The authors thank the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, SP, Brazil) for the opportunity to carry out SAXS measurements. Artur Martins also thank the UNICAMP, FAEPEX INTERNACIONAL 2015 Project.
CHEMICAL-FREE ASSESSMENT OF MEAT QUALITY USING SPECTRAL IMAGING MOHAMMED KAMRUZZAMAN1*, YOSHIO MAKINO2. 1Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 2The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. *[email protected]
The meat-processing industry is one of the largest agricultural and food-processing industries in the world. Therefore, there is clearly an urgent need for cost-effective, non-destructive, on-line quality control systems that enable measurements to be made quickly, accurately and easily. Recently, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a promising tool for non-destructive assessment of meat and meat products. However, hyperspectral imaging cannot be directly used in an online system due to the extensive time needed for the processing of the large volumes of data. Nevertheless, hyperspectral imaging technology can be a very useful technique for selecting some feature wavelengths for building a multispectral imaging system that can meet the speed requirement of industrial production lines. Surprisingly, different combinations of feature wavelengths were selected for the same constituent in different types of red meat. According to present research available in the literature and for convenient industrial applications, it will be necessary to conduct a comprehensive research combining all red meats for selecting some feature wavelengths for real-time multispectral prediction. Therefore, the overall goal of this research was to identify some important feature wavelengths through hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) applications to develop a rapid and simple multispectral imaging system for online screening of some selected meat quality parameters (color values, water holding capacity and moisture content) of all read meat (beef, lamb and pork) for the meat industry. Multivariate calibration models were developed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) in the full spectral range. Instead of selection of different sets of feature wavelengths for beef, lamb, and pork, a set of 6 (450, 460, 600, 620, 820, and 980 nm), 8 (545, 610, 705, 765, 805, 900, 940, and 970 nm) and 10 (440, 480, 575, 620, 655, 680, 725, 780, 955, and 980 nm) feature wavelengths was selected for convenient industrial application for the determination of color values, water holding capacity and moisture content, respectively, for all read meat. A quantitative linear function was then established using MLR based on these key feature wavelengths for these attributes of red meat for a real-time prediction. The coefficient of determination (R2p) of MLR model for these attributes for online determination was > 0.90. A multispectral vision system can be easily developed using these selected wavelengths within a multi-band camera to monitor red quality meat in the meat industry. The cameras with a few wavebands will not significantly differ from conventional RGB (red-green-blue) cameras in speed and cost, and will boost the development of online multispectral imaging technology in the future. Commercial real-time multispectral imaging system has now started appearing in the market. The commercialization of multispectral imaging systems will boost the scope of applications not only in the meat industries but also in other agro-food processing industries. Financial Support: This study was conducted with the financial support provided by The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (NO. P13395) and a Grantin-Aid for Scientific Research (JSPS NO. 13F03395).
COATING OF LIPID PARTICLES LOADED WITH VITAMIN D RENATA S. RABELO1*, ISABELA F. OLIVEIRA1, ANA S. PRATA1, MIRIAM D. HUBINGER1. 1School of Food Engineering at University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Lipid particles and polymeric particles chitosan-based have been extensively studied to application in delivery of bioactive compounds. Their success was mainly due to their physicochemical behaviors, as well as their biological properties such as bioactivity and biocompatibility. While chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide well-known by their mucoadhesive properties, lipid particles are carriers particularly recognized for the capacity to offer more release control of the active compounds. In this study, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructure Lipid Carrier (NLC) with mucoadhesive properties were developed as a delivery system for vitamin D, a hydrophobic compound with low bioavailability in oral formulations. For production of SLNs and NLCs, the selection of solid and liquid lipid was made according to their solubility and compatibility with vitamin D; six solid lipids and others six liquid lipids were evaluated. The ratio between solid and liquid lipids was determined in order to obtain solid or semi-solid particles without phase transition (solid-liquid) at room and body temperature. The particles were obtained by melting-emulsification, followed by electrostatic coating with chitosan to enhance its mucoadhesion. The melting temperature used was 10 °C higher than the melting point of lipidic mixture; the homogenization of emulsions was made in a stator rotor (15000 rpm, 10 min). The thermophysical properties of lipids and NLCs were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry; particles stability was analyzed by size distribution, polydispersity index, zeta potential and light backscattering. The coating over lipid particles was made by potentiometric titration with chitosan at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%). Stearic (SA) and oleic acid (OA) were the lipids that presented greater solubility and compatibility with vitamin D. NLC
70(SA):30(OA) was the system with the lowest polydispersity, size variation and less tendency to instability during the storage. The final point of potentiometric titration was defined in +30 mV. The biopolymer concentration was an important factor to prevent droplet aggregation in coated particle suspension. The concentrations of 2.0 and 2.5% of chitosan promoted the sufficient amount of chitosan to saturate the oil–water interface, without promoting depletion flocculation in evaluated period of storage (45 days at 25 °C). During this period, no degradation or expulsion of vitamin D out of the particle was observed. Financial Support: CNPq (449506/2014-2), CAPES (33003017029P4) and FAPESP (2015/11984-7).
COMBINED HIGH PRESSURE EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR FULL USE OF BIQUINHO PEPPER (Capsicum chinense) ANA C. AGUIAR1, ANA PAULA MACHADO1, JULIAN MARTÍNEZ1*. 1University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Biquinho peppers (Capsicum chinense) is a sweet pepper native to Brazil and presents considerable concentrations of capsinoids in its composition. Capsinoids (found in some varieties of sweet peppers) have physiological effects equivalent to those of capsaicinoids, without however expressing pungency. Our research group studied the extraction process of capsinoids with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) from biquinho peppers and the results indicated that the SC-CO2 was selective for these compounds. Since SC-CO2 preferentially extracts nonpolar compounds, the defatted biquinho pepper (DBP), which is the residue of the SFE process, presents a great potential to obtain polar bioactive compounds, as the phenolic compounds. Obtaining phenolic compounds from natural sources is of great interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is suitable for polar compounds, among then, the phenolic compounds. The major advantages of PLE are related to higher extraction yields, minimized use of solvents (usually GRAS), and reduced extraction times. Thus, the aim of this study was first obtain capsinoids rich extracts from lyophilized biquinho pepper using SFE and then apply sequentially the PLE process with ethanol, water and their mixtures as solvents in DBP to recover phenolic compounds. Ripe fruits of biquinho pepper were purchased on CEASA, Campinas, Brazil. The fresh peppers were freeze-dried and ground. The lyophilized biquinho peppers was submitted to SFE in order to remove the nonpolar compounds from the sample. The SFE process conditions were chosen based on previous work: 15 MPa and 50 °C. The CO2 flow rate was 2.43 10-4 kg/s and the extraction time 120 min (mass ratio between solvent and feed of 117 kg CO2/kg feed). PLE was performed using pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol and water as solvents. The experimental design was a full factorial with two variables and three levels in duplicate. The studied factors were ethanol percentage in the solvent (50, 75 and 100%) and temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C). Pressure was kept constant at 10±0.5 Mpa, extraction time was 60 min, and the solvent flow rate was 2.30, 3.52 and 3.82 mL/min for 50, 75 and 100% ethanol, respectively. All extraction assays were carried out in duplicate. Global yield (X0) was calculated by the mass ratio between dried extract and mass of dry sample. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined according to the Folin–Ciocalteu's method and the results were expressed in mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of DBP. The supercritical extraction process at 15 MPa and 50 °C from lyophilized biquinho pepper
showed a X0 of approximately 5%. Among the PLE operating conditions studied, the highest values of X0 were obtained with ethanol concentration of 50% for all temperatures studied (approximately 40%). It was not possible to establish a relation between temperature and extraction yield, although it was phenomenologically expected that the increase in temperature would result in higher extraction yields. Regarding the influence of the ethanol percentage in the mixture, it is well establish that the use of solvent mixtures can increase the extraction yields due to improvement of solubility and increasing the interaction of target compound with the extraction solvent. With regard to the TPC extraction by PLE, the condition that provided the highest yield was 75% ethanol and 65 °C (214 mg GAE/g DBP), whereas the lowest yield was obtained at 100% ethanol and 55 °C (85 mg GAE/g DBP). This result are in agreement with the observed by other authors, that the mixture of ethanol and water at 75% ethanol changes the solvent polarity in such way that improves significantly the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results obtained so far indicate that the proposed combined high-pressure extraction process (SFE + PLE) may be an interesting alternative for the industrial exploitation of this cultivar. Financial Support: The authors wish to thank FAPESP for the financial support (Process 2015/18119-0).
COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION BETWEEN HPMC AND SOY PROTEIN AT THE OIL/WATER INTERFACE: BEHAVIOUR OF EMULSIONS UNDER IN VITRO LIPOLYSIS FERNANDO A. BELLESI1*, VÍCTOR M. PIZONES1, ANA M. PILOSOF1. 1Universidad de Buenos Aires-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. *[email protected]
As the lipolysis is an interfacial process, the oil/water interfacial layer that stabilizes lipid emulsions has gained increasing attention as potential modulator of human lipids digestion. The control of the characteristics of interfacial layers would allow
the design of specific emulsions to control lipid delivery, satiety or reduce lipids digestion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of interfacial composition in the lipolysis process in order to identify interfacial structures that could reduce lipids digestion. Different interfacial structures (soy protein isolates (SP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures (HPMC-SP)) were analyzed at two concentrations. A static in vitro digestion system based on the infogest´s international protocol with some modifications was used to mimic the gastrointestinal conditions. Free fatty acid release was determined using an automatic titration method. The degree of lipolysis was related whit the droplet size distribution (static light scttering) of oil droplets and with the interfacial elastic modulus (interfacial tensiometer, sinterface PAT-1). Smaller droplets (larger surface area for lipase binding) produced the highest degree of lipolysis. At the lower emulsifier’s concentration in the mixed system both components adsorbed at the interface and as a result the degree of lipolysis was in between the values obtained for individual emulsifiers. However when the emulsifier´s concentration increased, the HPMC dominated the interface as determined by the film rheological parameters. The lipolysis process was similar to that observed for HPMC. In conclusion the structure of the interfacial layer had a clear impact in the degree of lipids digestion. Financial Support: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación productiva – Agencia de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica. Grant numbers: PICT-2014-3668.
DEVELOPMENT BREAD WITH CHLORELLA VULGARIS ADDITION: A RHEOLOGICAL APPROACH IMPACT OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY WHEAT DOUGH PROPERTIES CHLORELLA VULGARIS AS AN INGREDIENT FOR BAKERY INDUSTRY Carla A. Graça1, Isabel M. Sousa1, Anabela C. Raymundo1*. 1LEAF - Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. *[email protected]
Microalgae are a biological resource with a huge potential as a food ingredient, representing one of the most promising sources for new food products and applications, enhancing their nutritional and technological properties. Besides their impact in terms of colouring, rising to new consumer concepts, and due to their well-balanced chemical composition, they are a privileged vehicle for biologically active compounds. Chlorella vulgaris (Cv) is one of the most studied microalgae, allowed to be used as a food ingredient by EFSA. The presence of high protein content (c.a. 38%) and high carbohydrate levels (c.a. 20%), are determinant to the role of this microalgae on the development of the food structure. In the last fifteen years, our research group intensively studied the incorporation of Cv in a wide range of food matrices: puddings, mayonnaises, crackers, pasta and candies, with promising results. In the present, the incorporations of the Cv was tested in bread. Bread is a staple food with high impact in the human diet, resulting from its high nutritional value, being appreciated for its taste, convenience, texture and appearance. The use of natural ingredients, such as Cv, that exhibit functional properties, providing specific health benefits, is an attractive way to design new bakery goods, for an important market niche. However, the incorporation of Cv in bread has additional challenges due to the impact of microalgae on the development of the gluten matrix. Gluten proteins have a major role on the development of dough and consequently on bread quality. In the present work, the incorporation of Cv (from 1 to 5/100g flour) on a traditional wheat flour dough was performed with a special focus on the rheological features of the bread dough: i) the impact of the Cv on the rheological behaviour of the bread dough; ii) the impact on rheological properties of the dough and technological aptitude of wheat flour, and were assessed by farinographic and alveographic methods; iii) The effect of Cv addition on the kinetics of dough fermentation
that was followed by small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, in a controlled-stress rheometer. It was concluded that up to 3.0g Cv/100g of flour has a positive impact on the viscoelastic characteristics and a strengthening of the gluten network. The Farinograph water absorption increased and dough development time, stability and degree of softening of the dough were almost constant. This incorporation seems to have no impact on the kinetics of yeast fermentation. As opposed, more than 3.0% of Cv addition originated doughs with lower strength, lower tenacity (elasticity) and higher extensibility. A positive impact of Cv addition up to 3.0g Cv/100g on the aging profile of bread was also observed. Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, Bread, Rheology properties, Bakery Industry Financial Support: This work was supported by national funds from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through the research unit UID/AGR/04129/2013 (LEAF).
DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE, INTELLIGENT AND BIODEGRADABLE PACKAGING FOR FRESH BANANA LUIS A. MARZANO1, ANA P. BILCK1, FABIO YAMASHITA1. 1Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil. *[email protected]
All over the world, most of the food packaging is mainly petroleum-based, which are difficult to recycle and non- biodegradable. Over time, new forms of food packaging have emerged, such as active and intelligent packaging. Active packaging is characterized by changing environmental conditions around the food to extend its shelf life. The use of active packaging for
fresh fruit and vegetables is interesting because these products continue to respire after harvesting and the modification of the atmosphere due to packaging can decrease their metabolic activity, increasing shelf life. Intelligent packaging is a concept that detects, records, and/or indicates the shelf life condition of packaged products. Indicator systems usually provide qualitative information through visual colorimetric changes. Color-based pH indicators can potentially be used as secondary metabolite indicators, especially volatile compounds because aromas can induce pH changes. Fresh fruits and vegetables produce several volatile compounds associated with senescence, perishability and could be ripeness markers. The goal of this research was to develop an active, intelligent and biodegradable packaging for fresh bananas (Musa sp var. ‘Nanica’), one of the main agricultural crops on Earth, to increase shelf life and to monitor the ripeness of the fruit. In this study, zeolites (clinoptilolite) were used as ethylene scavenger, and bromothymol blue and methyl red as ripeness indicators because CO2 from packaging headspace can solubilize in a hydrophilic stripe (label) containing the indicators, forming carbonic acid that changes pH and consequently the color of the label. The indicator labels were produced by casting technique using cassava starch (5% w/w filmogenic solution) and glycerol (starch: glycerol ratio at 1:0.25). The biodegradable films were produced by blown extrusion using thermoplastic starch and PBAT (poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)) at ratio 70:30, respectively. Five treatments were processed: perforated and non-perforated control films, perforated and non-perforated films containing zeolite (1.5%) and non-packed banana, and all treatments had the indicator label. Bananas were stored for 7 days at 25°C. The change in firmness and loss of mass were represented by a first order model, the coefficients of determination of the regressions were good (R2=0.91, R2=0.99, respectively). The rate loss of firmness of the non-packed banana was the highest (1.61), and the nonperforated control film showed the lowest value, probably due to the concentration of CO2 inside the packaging, that reduced the respiration rate and ethylene production consequently delaying the ripeness. The loss of mass of the non-packed banana was the highest, with a 15% higher rate than the packaged ones, which can be related to the absence of the protective packaging. The soluble solids content and titratable acidity of the samples submitted to the different treatments showed similar behavior. There were significant differences between the treatments according to the color of the ripening indicator, the two treatments with perforated films showed no hue angle difference during the storage probably due to the leakage of CO2 through the perforations and thus the indicator did not detect the CO2. The ripening indicator was able to detect CO2 produced by bananas, the zeolites were not able to scavenge ethylene in the 1,5% in the film formulation. Films with higher zeolite concentration were more rigid and less flexible, and apparently, the zeolite was not able scavenge enough ethylene to reduce the fruit metabolism. Financial Support: CNPq, Fundação Araucária. Research project approved by Announcement MCTI/CT-AGRONEGÓCIO/CNPq Nº 39/2013 with resources of R$ 470.000 + 01 PEC-PG Scholarship (Process 133963/2016-0, R$ 1500.00 monthly for 2 years).
DEVELOPMENT OF LIPID-BASED ENCAPSULATION OF VITAMINS
MARIA A. AZEVEDO1, 2*, MIGUEL A. CERQUEIRA1, JOSÉ A. TEIXEIRA2, LORENZO PASTRANA1. 1INL - International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, Portugal; 2CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Vitamins have a special role in human diet, being essential for normal maintenance, growth and development of human organism and their absence can lead to specific deficiency syndromes. Liposoluble vitamins are very difficult to disperse and at same time very sensitive and unstable when exposed to inadequate conditions (i.e. temperature and pH). This way, it is important to preserve the properties of these molecules and to improve their biological efficiency. Nanoencapsulation appears as a good solution and the lipid-based nanosystems presents as a good alternative for vitamins encapsulation due to their unique features (e.g. easy scalability, presence of digestible lipids, possible absence of solvents and use of food-grade materials during production). The main objective of this project is the development, characterization and comparison of lipid-based nanosystems (nanoemulsions (NEs), solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured-lipid carriers (NLCs)) for encapsulation of liposoluble vitamins using biosurfactants. A factorial design for optimization of the process will be used. Initially will be developed NLCs and for their production will be used Neobee 1053 (liquid lipid) and glycerol monosterate (solid lipid) as lipid phase. The surfactant will be dissolved in ultra-pure water (aqueous phase) and will be tested Tween 80, saponin and rhamnolipids. For NLCs development will be used high intensity ultrasonic homogenizer being evaluated the production temperature, cycles, amplitude and time. Relatively to liposoluble vitamins that will be encapsulated, the vitamin A and D arise as good choices due to their health benefits. In the end size distribution, polydispersity, X-ray diffraction, and release behavior will be performed in order to understand the effect of the different surfactants in the lipid-based nanosystems properties. Financial Support: Maria A. Azevedo (SFRH/BD/123364/2016) is the recipient of a fellowship from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal).
DEVELOPMENT OF PECTIN-BASED EDIBLE FILMS INCORPORATED WITH JAMBOLAN JUICE (SYZYGIUM CUMINI) AND CINNAMON OR CLOVE OLEORESIN BIANCA S. COSTA.¹*, HULDA N. M. CHAMBI., FLAVIO L. S¹. School of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.*[email protected]
The formulation of oral application films is a trend within the are of edible films. Commonly called orodispersible films (ODF), they dissolve rapidly into the oral cavity after the contact saliva, resulting in a rapid absorption. The formulation of oral application films is a trend within the are of edible films. Commonly called orodispersible films (ODF), they dissolve rapidly into the oral cavity after the contact saliva, resulting in a rapid absorption. Oral application films were prepared by the casting method using pectin, jambolan juice, and natural oleorresins (cinnamon and clove in different concentrations). The influence of oleorresins addition was evaluated from mechanical, adhesive and sensory properties as well as from functional properties (anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity). Film thickness (40-46 μm) and moisture content (6.9-7.5%) were not affected by oleoresins addition. The addition of clove oleoresin increased the films solubilization time (from 1.1 to 1.7 minutes) and increased their tensile strength (from 16.3 to 23.7), forming stronger films. The addition of cinnamon and clove oleoresins promoted a higher adhesive strength (p <0.05), resulting in films with good mucoadhesive properties. Cinnamon and clove oleoresin affected the optical properties, reducing the films brightness. The films presented high content of phenolic compounds (19.70 - 20.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and antioxidant capacity (198.3 - 221.5 mg TEAC/g). The films had an adequate sensorial acceptance from the public, granting an interesting application for jambolan juice and natural oleoresins. Financial Support: CAPES.
DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE SOUP NUTRITIONALLY ENRICHED WITH SPIRULINA KRICELLE M. DEAMICI1, JESSICA H. DUARTE1, CRISTIANE R. LISBOA1, THAISA D. SANTOS1, JORGE ALBERTO V. COSTA1*. 1Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Brazil. *[email protected]
Child malnutrition in Brazil still affects part of the population, especially in the northeast. Actions to minimize this damage must be proposed more frequently. Spirulina microalga can be allied to this combat, since it is used as a food supplement due to its high nutritional quality. This microorganism can contain up to 70% (on a dry basis) of proteins, presenting all essential amino acids recommended by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and has the GRAS certificate, which establishes that it can be consumed without presenting health risks, provided that it is correctly handled. Spirulina biomass has polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E, K and B, pigments and antioxidants. The Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering of the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) together with the Federal University of Bahia, entered into a partnership with the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications whose main objective of the project is to add Spirulina microalgae in products of school meals of both states aiming to increase the nutritional value of these products. Spirulina is classified as a new ingredient and its daily consumption, recommended by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) is 1.6 g d-1. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop a formulation of vegetable soup with Spirulina addition to be inserted in school meals. The preparation was carried out at the Spirulina Food Processing Center (CEAS) at FURG. The ingredients of the soup were selected and weighed in powder or dehydrated and thereafter 500 ml of boiling water was added for the preparation. The following inputs were added: cabbage, broccoli, spinach, parsley, garlic, onion, carrot, flaked cassava, cassava powder, thickener, salt and Spirulina. The amount of each legume was defined in preliminary tests of color and flavor from the prepared soup. The formulation with 2% Spirulina in the composition showed the desired characteristics. This vegetable soup formulation provides, in a 250 ml portion, about 60% of the maximum daily intake of Spirulina recommended by ANVISA. In this way, the children will receive in the school lunch a nutritionally rich food, which will increase the protein content ingested by them. Financial Support: CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), MCTIC (Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications) and FURG (Federal University of Rio Grande).
DIETARY FIBER AND BOUND PHENOLICS FROM GRAPE PEEL POWDER PROMOTE GSH RECYCLING BUT NOT GSH SYNTHESIS IN RATS WITH TNBS-ULCERATIVE COLITIS LUANA H. MAURER1*, ANDRÉIA QUATRIN1, CINTHIA B. B. CAZARIN2, SABRINA M. NICHELLE1, CIBELE F. TEIXEIRA1, IVANA B. M. DA CRUZ1, MÁRIO R. MARÓSTICA JÚNIOR2, TATIANA EMANUELLI1. 1UFSM, Santa Maria, Brazil; 2UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects mainly colon and rectum. UC is triggered by immunological, genetic, and environmental factors, including diet and free radicals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species
and a significant depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels have been reported in colon tissue of UC. In this study we aimed to verify the beneficial effect of grape peel powder (GPP) on the GSH system in an UC experimental model and to identify the bioactive fraction (dietary fiber, bound and/or soluble phenolics) responsible for this effect. Soluble polyphenols (PE) were extracted from GPP using methanol:H20 (50:50, v/v, pH 2.0) and acetone:H20 (70:30, v/v). The residue from this extraction comprised the RE fraction, rich in dietary fiber and bound phenolics. RE was submitted to another two extractions using butanol:HCl (95:5, v/v) at 100°C for 3 h and MeOH:H2SO4 (90:10, v/v) at 85°C for 20 h to remove bounded phenolics and yield a fiber-rich and phenolic poor-fraction (RF). Dietary supplementation with GPP (8%) or its fractions was conducted during 15 days before colitis induction and for more 7 days after induction in Wistar rats (n=8/group). Supplementation with PE, RE, and RF was calculated to provide extractable and non-extractable polyphenols, and dietary fiber equivalent to those found in the GPP group. Another group of rats received mesalamine (100 mg/kg b.w.) by gavage as pharmacological treatment on 7 days subsequent to colitis induction. Colitis was induced in adult male Wistar rats using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) (40 mg/kg) by intracolonic administration on the 16th day and rats were euthanized 7 days after colitis induction. GSH levels and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays in the supernatant of colon tissue homogenate. Serum GSH levels were also evaluated. The mRNA expression of glutathione synthase (GS) and glutamate cysteine ligase (modifier (GCLm) and catalytic (GCLc) subunits) were evaluated in colon tissue by qRT-PCR. The reduction of serum GSH levels triggered by colitis (p<0.05) was completely prevented by mesalamine treatment and GPP diet but partially prevented by PE and RE diets. Colitis also depleted GSH levels and reduced GPx, GR, and GST activities in colon tissue (p<0.05). All experimental diets and mesalamine treatment partially restored colon GSH levels (p<0.05). Only GPP and RE diets restored GPx activity to control levels while treatment with mesalamine and all experimental diets were able to restore GR activity (p<0.05). GST activity also was significantly restored by all experimental diets. Colitis increased mRNA expression of GCLm and GCLc, and decreased mRNA expression of GS. Diets containing GPP and RE fraction partially reduced mRNA expression of GCLc but the other experimental diets and mesalamine treatment had no effect. The mRNA expression of GCLm was diminished by mesalamine treatment, GPP and RF diets. GS expression was not recovered by experimental diets or mesalamine. Our results demonstrate that GPP has positive effects on GSH metabolism in rats with UC induced by TNBS and that the reestablishment of GSH levels was associated to the recycling of oxidized gluthatione via increased GR activity instead of GSH synthesis. Such protective effect was triggered by soluble phenolics and also by the dietary fiber and bound phenolics from grape peel. Moreover, grape dietary fiber and fiber-bound phenolics (RE fraction) presented the most promising results to recover the antioxidant activity of GPx. Financial Support: CAPES, CNPq 552440/2011-6.
EFFECT OF FREEZING AND FREEZE-DRYING ON THE BIOACCESSIBILITY OF CAROTENOIDS AND CAROTENOID ESTERS FROM MANGO ANA A.O. XAVIER1*, CAMILA F. ALBANESE1, ADRIANA Z. MERCADANTE1. 1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Freezing and freeze-drying are common practices for preserving perishable samples in the laboratory routine. Both practices cause minimal alterations in the nutritional composition of foods, but can damage the microstructure of fruits and vegetables, possibly affecting the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of freezing and freeze-drying sample, on laboratory scale, on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoids esters from mango fruits. Mango fruits (Mangifera indica cv. Haden) were acquired at “Centrais de Abastecimento de Campinas S. A.” (CEASA, Campinas/Brazil), washed, cut into small pieces, and separated into three groups: fresh, frozen with liquid nitrogen and freezedried. Fresh samples were analyzed in the same day of handling and were considered as the storage initial time of frozen samples. Frozen samples and ground freeze-dried samples were vacuum packed and stored at -37 °C. Prior to the in vitro digestion, freeze-dried samples were rehydrated to its original moisture content (82.3%) by homogenization with ultrapure water. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was determined at days 0, 90 and 180 of storage, according to Minekus et al. (2014) adapted by Rodrigues et al. (2016). The carotenoid composition of the fruit and of the aqueous fraction containing micellar carotenoids obtained after the in vitro digestion was determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Statistical analyses were carried out by using the Statistica 7.0 software. Means were compared by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p=0.05). There was a slight increase in the total carotenoid content of frozen samples after 180 days of storage (55.9 ± 0.1 μg/g, f. w.) compared to fresh mango fruits (47.7 ± 0.5 μg/g, f. w.). Total carotenoid content in freeze-dried samples was lower (33.7 ± 1.2 μg/g, f.w.) than
fresh and frozen samples. Despite the preserving method, the carotenoid profile remained the same, being (all-E)-β-carotene (32.9%), (all-E)-violaxanthin-dibutyrate (13.8%) and (9Z)-violaxanthin-dibutyrate (7.8%) the major carotenoids. On the other hand, after in vitro digestion the peaks assigned as violaxanthin esters practically disappeared and the carotenoid profile in the aqueous phase was characterized by the presence of (all-E)-β-carotene (about 53.7%) as the major carotenoid. Similarly to the total carotenoid content, the bioaccessibility values of frozen samples increased along the time, from 11.7 ± 2.7% at the initial time to 17.2 ± 3.7% after 180 days; however, these results were not statistically different. In contrast, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from freeze-dried mango was different in each time of storage (9.9-19.9%). The water removal from sample by freeze-drying shows to affect both bioaccessibility and total carotenoid content of mango. Nevertheless, the storage of frozen mango samples at -37 °C during 180 days does not alter the carotenoid profile neither the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from this fruit, showing to be a suitable method to preserve the samples prior to in vitro digestion analysis. Financial Support: CAPES (Grant #88887.091278/2014-00), FAPESP (Grant #2013/07914-8).
EFFECT OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON LISTERIA INNOCUA INACTIVATION IN MINAS FRESCAL CHEESE ADDED WITH CARROT FABIOLA S. GOUVEA1,2*, ELISA HELENA R. FERREIRA1, EDUARDO HENRIQUE M. WALTER2 AMAURI ROSENTHAL2. 1Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brasil; 2Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa em Agropecuária-CTAA, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. *[email protected]
Consumers are increasingly becoming more critical in the selection of a food product by mainly considering nutritional and safety issues in the decision to purchase. Carrot is reported as having antilisterial activity, therefore it could be possibly added as a natural healthy preservative in foods. If associated with high hydrostatic pressure, a non-thermal preservation method, it could potentially provide a combined effect on Listeria viability in cheese. The objective of the this study was to evaluate the application of high hydrostatic pressure to Minas Frescal cheese incorporated with carrot on the inactivation and further 2 inhibition along the storage of Listeria innocua inoculated in the cheese. A 2 factorial design was employed to evaluate the inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, being the independent variables the pressure (0 and 500MPa) and the carrot concentration (0% and 6%), with three repetitions of the central point. The count of Listeria innocua was performed after 24 hs (day1) of cheese production and/or high pressure processing, and also analyzed at 7, 14 and 21 days of storage by surface plating onto Listeria selective medium with selective supplement. High pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the Listeria innocua count from 7 log cfu /ml up to undetectable levels, without further significant increase along the chilled storage at 8 °C for 22 days. On the contrary, the single carrot incorporation (6%) or its combination at the level of (3%) with pressure treatment (250 MPa) had no effect on the inhibition of this microorganism. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possible combination of high pressure and carrot incorporation to Minas cheese aiming at inactivating or inhibiting Listeria innocua contamination, which was singly achieved by high pressure processing. Financial Support: Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).
EFFECT OF INCORPORATING FREE AND ENCAPSULATED ECHIUM OIL, PHYTOSTEROLS AND SINAPIC ACID IN YOGURT TALITA A. COMUNIAN1, IZABEL C.F. MORAES1, INAR A. CASTRO2, CARMEN S. FAVARO-TRINDADE1*. 1University of Sao Paulo, College of Animal Science and Food Engineering, Pirassununga, Brazil; 2University of Sao Paulo, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sao Paulo, Brazil. *[email protected]
Omega-3 fatty acids (ɷ-3) and phytosterols are compounds very used in food and pharmaceutical products due to their beneficial effects on health. The consumption of the mixture of ɷ-3 and phytosterol allows the reduction of levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerols; however, these compounds are susceptible to oxidation, which hampers their use and application. Strategies that would minimize this problem are the addition of compound with antioxidant function (sinapic acid) and the microencapsulation process. It was proposed the coencapsulation of echium oil (source of ɷ-3) and phytosterols by complex coacervation using gelatin and gum arabic as wall materials and sinapic acid as crosslinking and antioxidant agent, and the application of the capsules into yogurt to produce a functional product. Three different formulations of yogurt were produced, differentiating in relation to the presence or absence of microcapsules and free bioactive compounds, as follows: T1: control yogurt, T2: yogurt added of the non-encapsulated bioactive compounds and T3: yogurt added of microcapsules. The samples were characterized according to morphology by optical and scanning electron microscopy, pH and titratable acidity,
instrumental color, rheological characterization for samples stored at 4 °C for 30 days and consumer acceptance test. According to morphology, it was observed the presence of the droplets of oil and phytosterols in the treatment with non-encapsulated compounds, in an inhomogeneous way. In the case of T3, it was observed microcapsules in the final product. It is inferred that the encapsulation of echium oil and phytosterol helps even in their application in food, since it allows their dispersion homogeneously. Values of pH and titratable acidity were obtained from 4.14 to 4.05 and from 4.10 to 4.02, and from 0.789 to 0.826 % and from 0.782 to 0.802 % for samples stored for 0 and 30 days, respectively. Regarding to the parameter a*, values from 8.63 to 8.99 and from 8.93 to 9.11 were obtained for yogurts stored for 0 and 30 days, respectively. These values were expected, since strawberry yogurt was produced, confirming the pink/ red tone of the samples. In relation to the apparent viscosity, it was observed that it decreased with the increase of the rate of deformation during the shear and remained stable, without significant difference over storage. However, there was a significant difference among treatments from the first day of analysis, obtaining the values from 0.526 to 0.689 and from 0.539 to 0.663 Pa.s for the samples stored during 0 and 30 days, respectively, with deformation rate of 20 sec-1. Treatment T3 presented higher values than the treatments T1 and T2, as already expected due to the addition of the microcapsules. However, the addition of the microcapsules did not influence on the quality of the final product. Values from 63.48 to 80.47 Pa and from 55.93 to 96.09 Pa were obtained for G' (storage modulus) and from 15.17 to 23.0 Pa and from 16.8 to 22.1 Pa for G'' (loss modulus) for 0 and 30 days of storage, respectively. It was observed higher values for T3, so the addition of the microcapsules promoted the formation of a weak gel, like the others, however with increased elastic behavior. Regarding to consumer acceptance test, there was a significant difference among the treatments for all attributes, however T3 presented good scores, being accepted by the consumers. In this way, the process of encapsulation by complex coacervation was effective for the application of these bioactive compounds into yogurt, since it added of microcapsules presented physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties similar to the yogurt control and superior than yogurt added of free bioactive compounds. Financial Support: FAPESP (Process 2013/25862-5).
EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROTEIN SOLUTION (BSA) AND THE CONSEQUENCES ON THE ULTRAFILTRATION PERFORMANCE FABIANA L. SILVA1*, KATIA REZZADORI1, GUILHERME ZIN1, JOSÉ C.C. PETRUS1, JOSÉ V. OLIVEIRA1, MARCO D. LUCCIO1. 1Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil; *[email protected]
Membrane technology is widely used in food industry, and the main limitation of this technology are the concentration polarization and fouling. Physical and chemical strategies have been developed to reduce these phenomena. Although some strategies are extensively employed, like chemical cleaners, they can cause damages to the membranes. This study proposed the use of magnetic field in feed solution as a pretreatment to improve the ultrafiltration (UF) performance. Permeation tests of BSA (2.5 g·L-1 and pH 6.5) through a 50 kDa hydrophilic polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were carried out in a tangential flow module. The magnetic induction effect (MI) on the feed solutions was studied by submitting the feed to a magnetic field (magnetic flux density 1.4 T) for 0.5 h, 2 h and 12 h before permeation runs. In the control runs, the feed solution was not exposed to the magnetic field. The ultrafiltration (UF) performance was investigated by determining permeate flux, hydraulic permeability recovery and the resistances to permeate flux. Zeta potential analysis was used to determine the magnitude of the repulsion/attraction or electrostatic charges between protein aggregates. The increase of the permeate flux after magnetic induction assays was noteworthy. Permeate fluxes increased up to 195% after 12 h of magnetic induction under 1.4 T field. In the control assays, most of the resistance to permeation was caused by fouling (58%). On the other hand, when the BSA solution was pretreated magnetically before UF, the fouling resistance decreases to 38 % after 12 h of magnetic induction. The exposure to magnetic field also caused an increase in permeability recovery from 43% (control) to 82% after 2 h of magnetic induction. The solutions of BSA induced by an hour or more showed a higher potential zeta module, which suggests that the pretreated solutions are more stable, hindering their aggregation thereof. These results suggests that the magnetic field can contribute to reduce the deposition and adsorption of particles on the membrane surface. Financial Support: The authors thank CNPq/Brazil (552185/2011-6; 477497/2013-6) and CAPES/Brazil for the financial support and scholarships. Ceramic & Composite Materials Research (CERMAT/UFSC) and Multi-user Analytical Laboratory (CA-EQA/UFSC) are acknowledged for zeta potential analyses.
EFFECT OF PH ON THE HYDRATION KINETICS OF BLACK-EYED COWPEA SEEDS (VIGNA UNGUICULATA) SAMUEL. O. OLADELE1, O. FARAMADE OSUNDAHUNSI2, PEDRO E.D. AUGUSTO3*AND LEO A.S. AGBETOYE1. 1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 3Department of Agri-Industry, Food and Nutrition (LAN), ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. *[email protected]
For industrial utilisation and academic research and design it is necessary to have the hydration kinetics data of legumes, the hydration kinetics of black-eyed cowpea was studied at temperature 25±0.3 oC at pH range of 3 and 12 by soaking the legumes in different pH solution, and monitoring its weight gain until the samples reached the saturation weight. The absorption rate was initially fast but later slowed down as the saturation moisture content was approached until it was finally reached at each pH. The cowpeas soaked at alkaline pH 12 presented a higher hydration rate than other pH solutions. The samples soaked in other pH solutions presented relatively close hydration rates, with acidic pH 3 hydration rate was slightly higher the other two, besides the three low pH solutions supported germination process of the samples while pH 12 solution did not; but rather alter the colour and appearance of the sample compared to others who presented far better colours and appearances Financial Support: Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund), Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria and ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
EFFECT OF VISCOSITY OF FOOD ON DIGESTION IN THE HUMAN SMALL INTESTINE - AN IN VITRO EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY KARTHIKEYAN J.S.1, DEEPTI *[email protected]
Research in human digestion is limited due to the complex multistage process of digestion and technical difficulties in thorough in situ understanding the process. The possibility of experimental and numerical analysis of the dynamics of food in the human gastrointestinal tract can enhance the understanding of the human digestive process. Based on reported in vivo studies, our hypothesis is that the rates of digestion and nutrient absorption would be inversely proportional to the viscosity of the digested food. The main aim of this research is to study the role of the viscosity of gastrointestinal content on the human digestive process. This project includes in vitro experimental work and mathematical modeling. The in vitro experimental study was performed using the TIM-1 system, an in vitro gastrointestinal model patented by TNO (The Netherlands). The TIM-1 system is a computerized multi-compartmental system that mimics the conditions and functions of human upper digestive tract. Using 5 g maltodextrin as the food, the viscosity of the stomach content was controlled by varying the proportions of glycerol and water. The initial viscosity values of the stomach content ranged from 1 mPa.s to 134 mPa.s. After oral ingestion of the food system (maltodextrin, glycerol, and water) in the TIM-1 system, the experiments were conducted for 5 h. Digested food components that were absorbed in the jejunum and ileum sections of the small intestine were collected periodically. Glucose concentrations in the collected samples were evaluated by a chemical assay method. Glucose absorption curves of the maltodextrin feed were compared with the glucose absorption curve of a reference food (5 g pure glucose) and their ratio (in percentage) was termed as ‘pre-glycemic index’. The pre-glycemic index values of 5 g maltodextrin with three different viscosity values of stomach content ranged from 26 (at 1 mPa.s) to 17 (at 134 mPa.s). It was observed that the viscosity of the food non-linearly influenced the digestion and nutrient absorption. A fourteen-fold increase in stomach content viscosity from 1 mPa.s decreased the preglycemic index by 40%. However, beyond 14 mPa.s, a ten-fold increase in the viscosity did not significantly affect the preglycemic index. The results of this study suggest that for starchy food there could be a critical viscosity limit until which the viscosity significantly influences the glucose absorption rate. To perform numerical simulation, a finite element method (FEM) based computational software, COMSOL Multiphysics® was used. From the literature, the real-time values such as small intestinal inner diameter (~11.1 mm) and the gut motility parameters (contraction cycle: ~7.8 s and contraction ratio: 73%) were obtained and used to develop a two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid flow model mimicking the human small intestine. Multiple peristaltic waves were successfully incorporated along the entire length of the human small intestine (~5 m) to achieve a literature-based average residence time of food particles (~168 min) in the human small intestine. The imposed intestinal motility and predicted velocity profile were validated with available data in the literature. In future, reaction kinetics and diffusion physics would be incorporated to the fluid flow model to simulate the transport, digestion, and nutrient absorption of the model food system (5 g maltodextrin) with three different initial viscosity values ranging from 1 mPa.s to 134 mPa.s. The numerical model will be validated with experimental results and improved for the accurate prediction of the digestion of
maltodextrin and intestinal absorption of glucose as a function of the viscosity of the food. The validated numerical simulation can be extended to predict the pre-glycemic index of a given food, with known composition and known viscosity. This research can help food industry in formulating foods with specific viscosity behavior so that excessive caloric intake can be controlled which in turn can reduce the prevalence of obesity related health risks. EFFECTS OF THE CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF A DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH PERSEA AMERICANAMILL. (AVOCADO) PULP IN HEALTHY MICE. ELLEN C.S. DE OLIVEIRA1*, , CÍNTIA R. BALLART1, MÁRIO R. MARÓSTICA JR. 1, DÉBORA B. VENDRAMINI-COSTA2, JOÃO ERNESTO DE CARVALHO1. 1Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil; 2Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, United States; *[email protected] Avocado, a fruit of the species Persea americana Mill possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and is a rich source of fibers, vitamins, carotenoids, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Such compounds may interact with the intestinal microbiota, providing protection to the intestinal wall and potentially preventing the development of chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. It is known that the extended consumption of certain vegetable foods such as fruits and seeds may have non-specific effects, which can ultimately cause toxicity. Therefore, considering the role of avocado as a functional food, it is extremely important to ensure the safety of the daily consumption of this fruit for a long period. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the prolonged consumption of a diet supplemented with Persea americana (avocado) pulp in healthy mice in a daily basis. Male Balb/c mice with 8 weeks age (20-35 g) were randomly separated into two groups (n=10/group). Group 1 received regular diet (AIN-93) while group 2 received a diet supplemented with avocado pulp at the concentration of 20% for a period of 50 days. During this period, body weight, food intake and behavioral changes were evaluated three times a week. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, the blood collected for total blood characterization and serum biochemical analysis and the organs excised for macroscopic evaluation. Results were expressed in mean ± S.E.M. and analyzed by ANOVA followed by unpaired t test. There was no statistical difference on food consumption between the groups, indicating that the supplemented diet is well accepted by the animals. Although avocado pulp is rich in lipids, the animals receiving the control diet had greater body weight gain. No behavioral changes were observed in any of the groups, suggesting that the prolonged consumption of avocado did not promote toxicity to the central nervous system. The group that received the diet supplemented with avocado presented smaller counts of blood parameters, such as hemoglobin (15.8±0.8 vs. 14.5±0.4), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (28.2±1.1vs.26.9±0.4), hematocrit (56.2±1.7 vs. 54.0± 1.9), red blood cells (11.5±0.4 vs. 11.1±0.3) and white blood cells (7.3±2.1 vs. 4.3±1.2). Although the values are statistically different, such differences are within the normal range for the species, which indicates that the supplemented diet did not cause significant changes in these parameters. For biochemical analysis, only alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in the supplemented group (102.6±12.31 vs.117.5±10.65), which could suggest some type of biliary damage, but the generalized expression of this enzyme makes this interpretation difficult. The relative weight of spleens (0.47±0.04 vs. 0.57±0.04) and livers (4.57±0.43 vs. 5.26±0.48) were higher in the supplemented group, however the absolute weight of these organs did not differ between groups, which together with the lesser body weight gain of the supplemented group could explain the increased relative weight of these organs. Therefore, we suggest that prolonged consumption of Persea americana fruit (avocado) do not promote considerable non-specific effects. Financial Support: Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).
EFFECTS OF PROCESS VARIABLES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIGELS LUIZ H. FASOLIN1, ANTÓNIO A. VICENTE1*. 1University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Bigels are complex biphasic systems composed by an organic and aqueous gelled phases that can act as texture modifiers due to their enhanced mechanical properties. Moreover, the presence of oil and water phases allow their use as vehicles for both hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactives, making them very interesting for food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications. Despite the increasing number of publications concerning the production and use of bigels in recent years, there are no papers evaluating the effects of process conditions on their physicochemical properties. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the process variables on particle size, mechanical and rheological properties. For this purpose, gellan gum was used to produce hydrogels and high oleic sunflower oil and glycerol monostearate to produce organogels. Hydrogels and organogels were produced separately by solubilizing the correspondent gelling agent at 80 °C during 30 min. After gelation, they were
mixed in a mechanical stirrer at determined speed for 10 min. A four level (24) Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) configuration was applied in order to study the organogelator concentration (5 % - 15 % w/w), hydrocolloid concentration (1 % 1.5 % w/w), organogel:hydrogel ratio (80:20 – 20:80) and shear of mixing (500 min-1 – 1500 min-1). The evaluated responses (dependent variables) were particle size distribution, complex modulus (G*) at 1 Hz and mechanical properties (spreadability, adhesiveness, firmness). Rheological results showed that all systems were frequency independent (characteristic of gelled systems) even after stirring. According to the CCRD results, mechanical and rheological properties showed the same tendency with the variation of the independent variables. The factors that most affected these parameters were the concentration of organogelator and the organogel:hydrogel ratio. The increase in glycerol monostearate concentration led to the formation of more structured gels, with high spreadability, firmness, adhesiveness and G* values. The same behavior was observed when organogel concentration prevailed in the system. On the other hand, smaller particles were obtained when higher mixing speeds were applied. Thus, Different physicochemical properties can be obtained by tuning the parameters involved in the bigels production process. Softer or harder gels, with higher or lower spreadability, bigger or smaller particles size distribution can be produced depending on the desired final product and application. ENZIMATIC SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURED LIPIDS, RICH POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN A HIGH PRESSURE BIOREACTOR
JOANA RODRIGUES1, NATÁLIA M. OSÓRIO2, VÉRONIQUE PERRIER3, FRANCISCO PLOU4, MARIA H. RIBEIRO5, ERIC DUBREUCQ3, SUZANA FERREIRA-DIAS1. 1Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, LEAF, Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Escola Superior de Tecnologia do Barreiro, Rua Américo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio, Portugal ; 3Montpellier SupAgro, UMR 1208 IATE, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex, France; 4Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, Madrid, Spain; 5Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences (i-Med.UL), Lisboa, Portugal. *[email protected]
The interesterification of natural fats can improve their physical or nutraceutical properties by modification of the acylglycerol profile. The aim of this work was studying the effect of high pressure on the lipase-catalized interesterification kinetics of a ternary fat blend of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3) PUFA (“EPAX 4510 TG”, EPAX AS, Norway). The reaction was carried out in a solvent free medium at 60ºC. Four immobilized biocatalysts were reused (“Lipozyme RMIM”, “Lipozyme TLIM”, “Novozym 435” and the lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis immobilized on Accurel MP1000) in 6 successive batches of 3 hour each, using fresh medium. Five different pressures were tested: 0,1 MPa (atmospheric pressure), 25, 50, 75 and 100 MPa. The interesterification reaction was followed by the decrease in the solid fat content at 35ºC (SFC 35ºC) and by the modifications in the acylglycerol profile. The observed modifications in the acylglycerol profiles show that all biocatalysts were still active after 6 batches (total of 18 hours) at up to 100 MPa. The best results in terms of operational stability were observed for “Lypozyme TLIM”. Also, values of SFC 35 ºC varied differently depending on the lipase. “Lipozyme RMIM” and the lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis decreased their activity with increasing pressure, while “Lipozyme TLIM” and “Novozym 435” increased their activity with increasing pressure. In this work, free fatty acids and oxidation products were also assayed. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN LAYER ON BIOACESSIBILITY OF BIOACTIVE MODEL COMPOUNDS IN PROTEIN NANOHYDROGELS ANA I. BOURBON1*, ANA C. PINHEIRO1, MIGUEL A. CERQUEIRA2, ANTÓNIO A. VICENTE1. 1CEB -Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2INL - International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
One of the challenges of food enrichment with bioactive compounds is related with their loss of functional activity in food matrices and their instability during digestion, leading to a poor bioavailability. These challenges are promoting research efforts to find more effective delivery systems based on natural biopolymers. Protein nanohydrogels can be used as carriers of bioactive compounds in food products, however, during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion, proteins are denatured by environmental conditions and hydrolyzed by enzymes. One of the strategies to improve protein nanohydrogels’ stability and the controlled release of active ingredients during GI digestion is the addition of a coating (e.g. polysaccharide layer). The behavior of lactoferrin (Lf) – glycomacropeptide (GMP) nanohydrogels with and without a chitosan coating was evaluated during gastrointestinal digestion. A dynamic gastrointestinal system, composed by stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum
compartments, was used as in vitro digestion model to evaluate the stability and bioaccessibility of Lf and GMP during the digestion process. The results showed that at the end of digestion, Lf and GMP were digested until levels of protein degradation of 76 % and 53 % were achieved, respectively, for the nanohydrogels with chitosan coating, whereas for nanohydrogels without coating the corresponding levels of protein degradation were around 86 % and 71 % for Lf and GMP, respectively. Protein bioaccessibility results showed that in nanohydrogels with chitosan coating 23 % of Lf and 40 % of GMP remained intact until absorption. Size distribution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that nanohydrogels with chitosan coating were more stable during digestion than nanohydrogels without coating. Based on these results, the bioaccessibility of two different bioactive compounds encapsulated in Lf-GMP nanohydrogels with chitosan coating was evaluated during gastrointestinal digestion. Curcumin was used as lipophilic model compound and caffeine as hydrophilic model compound. Bioaccessibility of curcumin in coated nanohydrogels was 72 % while the corresponding value for curcumin in free form only reached 66 %. It was also observed that under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions, free curcumin lost around 68 % of its antioxidant activity while when incorporated into nanohydrogels only 30 % of this activity was lost. Results also showed that the bioaccessibility of caffeine encapsulated in coated nanohydrogels was 63 % while caffeine in free form only reached to 59 %. Overall results suggest that the use of chitosan layer to coat protein-based nanohydrogels could be a good alternative to improve proteins’ stability during in vitro digestion and protect both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds, improving their bioaccessibility. Financial Support: Ana I. Bourbon, and Ana C. Pinheiro acknowledge the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) for their fellowships SFRH/BD/73178/2010 and SFRH/BPD/101181/2014, respectively. This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2013 unit and COMPETE 2020 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006684) and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 e Programa Operacional Regional do Norte.
EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STEVIA EXTRACTS AN ITS APPLICATION AS FUNCTIONAL SWEETENER IN BAKERY PRODUCTS ANA G. COVARRUBIAS CARDENAS1, MELANIE FRISON, JESUS PATRON-VAZQUEZ, HUGO ESPINOSA-ANDREWS2, TERESA AYORATALAVERA1, ULISES GARCÍA-CRUZ3, NEITH PACHECO1. 1Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, Mérida, México. 2Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, Guadalajara, México. 3Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Mérida, México. *[email protected]
The increasing acceptability of consumers to the straight relation between diet and health as well as the medical complications related to obesity in Latin America, has conducted to the opportunity of the development of functional foods that provide health benefits beyond the necessary essential nutrients. In this sense stevia leaves extract have been used as a natural sweetener in processed food due to is 150 to 300 times sweeter than sucrose and also because they are suggested to exert beneficial effects on human health. However no much attention has been directed to its antioxidant activity. The principal objectives of the present study were 1) to evaluate the extraction conditions by ultrasound assisted method (UAE) on the antioxidant activity of stevia extracts, 2) the determinations of sweetener power, polyphenol and steviol glycoside profile as well as 3) its application as ingredient to prepare low-calorie bakery products with functional properties and sensorial acceptance. Stevia rebaudiana variety bertoni was previously dried in a convection oven, ethanol-water extracts (EWE) were obtained using a UAE methodology and evaluated according a 32 factorial design. Antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometric methods, Total polyphenolic content, stevioside and polyphenol profiles were determined using a UPLC methodology. Sweetener power was determined by sensorial determinations and bakery products were elaborated with the EWE with higher antioxidant activity. Water Activity (aW), Water Content (%), Physical and Textural determinations of bakery products were evaluated according Mexican normativity. Sensorial test for acceptability were performed with a non-training panel. The factorial design indicated that the conditions of 50% of ethanol-water extracts presented de major antioxidant activities. Polyphenol profile showed the presence of protocatechuic, catechin and clorogenic acid. The stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B and rebaudioside C were also present in the extracts. The sweetener power of the extract was of 15.5 (13/0.84) and the cookies with the EWE evaluated presented acceptance by the evaluators according to the sensorial test. These results indicated that stevia extracts additionally to the sweetener power possess high antioxidant activity that can be used as functional ingredient in bakery products. Financial Support: Fondo Sep-Conacyt Ciencia Básica Número. CB2015-01. Número de proyecto: 258118
EVALUATION OF THE “CACAO HONEY” AS A RICH SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS TO BE CONSUMED IN NATURA AND/OR TO ADD NUTRITIONAL VALUE TO DRINKS AND FOODS FÁBIO N. DOS SANTOS1*, PAULO R. R. MESQUITA2, MARCOS N. EBERLIN1. 1ThoMSon Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. *[email protected]
The “cacao honey” (Theobroma cacao L.) is the aqueous fraction of cacao pulp that is rich mainly in volatile and non-volatile bioactive compounds, water, fermentable sugars and minerals. Cacao honey can be consumed in natura or in some preparations such as jelly, liqueur, spirits, vinegar, beer and others. There are preliminary studies of chemical, physicochemical and biochemical analysis, however “cacao honey” remains as a bio-waste of cacao processing in farms that has not yet been explored commercially due to lack of detailed studies about inorganic and organic compositions. The objective here was to identify the bioactive composition of “cacao honey” produced in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The cacao fruits were grown on the Santa Maria farm in Camacan-Bahia, Brazil. The “cacao honey” was obtained by pressing seeds of three different cacao clones that is CCN51, CEPEC2002 and PH16. The cacao honey mixture was analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for identification of volatile and non-volatile bioactive compounds, respectively. The volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed using a GC–MS system (Shimadzu GCMSQP2010 Plus high performance single quadrupole, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a split/splitless injector in the splitless mode and at 250 °C during the chromatographic run. Volatile compounds were separated in a capillary column (Rxi-1 MS 100% dimethyl polysiloxane; 30 m × 0.25 mm ID × 0.25 μm, Restek, Bellefonte, USA) using helium (99.99%) as carrier gas at a 0.80 mL min−1 flow rate. The oven temperature was varied as follows: 50 °C (3 min), then warmed to 80 °C at 2 °C min−1, then 3 °C min−1 to 110 °C (hold 3 min), then 2 °C min−1 to 145 °C, then 5 °C min−1 to 220 °C (total time 63.5 min). The mass detector conditions were: transfer line temperature of 220 °C, ion source temperature of 220 °C and ionization mode with electron impact at 70 eV. The non-volatile compounds were analyzed using an Agilent 1290 Infinit LC system coupled with an Agilent 6550 Q-TOF-MS/MS mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source in positive mode. The metabolites were separated through a 150 x 2.1 mm Kinetex XBC18 UHPLC column of 1.7 μm particles. Identification of VOCs was achieved comparing all mass spectra with the data system library (NIST 147 Database). The major VOCs were 2-pentyl acetate, 2-heptanol, O-cymene, D-Limonene, 2-octyl acetate, acetophenone, octanol, 2-
methylpentanal, linalool, 2-nonanol, 3-acetyl-pentanone, methylethylene acetate, nonanol, ethyl octanoate, δ-phenylpropanol, phenyl ethyl acetate, (E) 2-decenal, decanol, ethyl nonanoate and ethyl palmitate. The identifications of non-volatiles compounds were made using a MassHunter Qualitative Analysis software search of the data against values imported from the PDCL library of known metabolites. The major non-volatile bioactive compounds were 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)pyruvate, mometasone furoate, dihydrocaffeic acid 3-O-glucuronide, mometasone furoate, glutathione, 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucarate, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, 1,3-dimethyl-8-isoquinolinol, botrydial, pleniradin, 4-hydroxycoumarin, huratoxin, 6-hydroxyshogaol, acetyl tributyl citrate, polidocanol, 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide, tridodecylamine and di(2ethylhexyl) adipate. This great diversity of volatiles and non-volatiles bioactive compounds makes “cacao honey” a valuable raw material for application in the foods and drinks as potential source of nutrients to be consumed in natura or to be used in preparations of jelly, juices, beers and cachaças. EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOR OF EDIBLE CHITOSAN FILMS STORED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS. NATHALIA VALDERRAMA-BOHÓRQUEZ1. 1Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C., Colombia. *[email protected]
The aim of this research was evaluate the effect of the thyme and rosemary essential oils inclusion and storage on the properties of the chitosan films. The films obtained were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and relative humidities of 60, 75, 93% during four weeks. The addition of essential oils and some conditions of storage modified some physical properties as color and mechanical properties, without affect the thickness and the antimicrobiogical capacity. On the other hand, the incorporating of antimicrobial agents into chitosan solutions improves antimicrobial efficacy. Therefore, it is possible to consider that all chitosan films after the dry did not exhibit inhibition against studied strains. Additionally, the color parameters such as L*, a*, b* y ΔE were modified due to the addition of essential oils, the storage conditions and the standard backdrops for the RSIN and RSEX color measurements. During storage, some factors such as the mix of essential oils inclusion and the temperature, time and humidity increasing caused in the majority of cases, the decreasing of the L* and b* values. Finally, the ΔE increasing was caused for the L* decreasing values and the b* increasing values. Financial Support: The author would like to thank the Dirección de Investigación Sede Bogotá of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia because the financial assistance through the call “National program of projects for strengthening research, creation and innovation in postgraduates”.
EVALUATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND SOLVENT CONTENT IN THE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC AND ANTHOCYANINS COMPOUNDS FROM WASTE OF CAMU-CAMU PATRÍCIA A. C. ARAÚJO1, ALESSANDRA L. OLIVEIRA 1, ROSEMARY A. CARVALHO1*. 1Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil. *[email protected]
Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) is a native tropical fruit from Amazon region that grows naturally in flooded or partially flooded areas. It is considered one of the richest sources of vitamin C, is also a source of phenolic compounds as carotenoids, flavonoids and has high antioxidant activity. Due to its bitter taste and high acidity the fruit is little consumed in natura, it has been processed and commercialized in the form of pulp, juice or supplement of vitamin C, being the greater part destined for export. The main export markets of camu-camu have been Japan, the European Union and the United States, in the form of frozen pulp, dry extract and juice. The processing of the fruit generates residues containing bark, seeds and residual pulp, which correspond to 40% of the weight of the fruit. There are reports in the literature that the camu-camu residue has a higher content of active compounds when compared to other fruit pulps. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature and solvent content on the extraction of phenol compounds and anthocyanins from camu-camu industrial waste using pressurized liquid extraction method (PLE). Drying of the residue was carried out at 50 °C in a forced air ventilation oven. The dried residue was subjected to pressurized liquid extraction using as solvent hydrous ethanol 70 and 80% and temperatures of 50 and 60°C. The extract was characterized for phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau reduction capacity using gallic acid as standard, and the anthocyanins were determined by the differential pH method. The analyzes were performed in triplicate and the experimental data were analyzed using SAS software (Version 9.2, SAS, Inc.). The difference between the means was determined by Tukey's test (95% confidence interval). A greater (p<0.05) amount of phenolic compounds was observed in the extract obtained at 60°C using as solvent hydrous ethanol at 70%. The best extraction performance at 60°C may be related to the use of high temperature that increases the extraction efficiency and favors the diffusion and solubility rates of the compounds in the solvent. For anthocyanins, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the extraction temperatures, however a greater amount of anthocyanins was observed in the extract obtained using ethanol at 80%. The pressurized liquid extraction showed a satisfactory result in the extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from the industrial waste of camu-camu. The use of solvents as alcoholic hydro solution of ethanol and water are generally inefficient for the extraction of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds at low temperatures, but may be more efficient at higher temperatures in pressurized liquid extraction. Financial Support: CAPES (Brazilian Federal Agency for the Improvement of Higher Education), FAPESP (Process:2016/16250-4), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, grant RAC no 304440/2016-7)
EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND USE IN THE FORMATION OF MULTILAYER EMULSIONS MICROENCAPSULATED BY SPRAY DRYING ELIANA M. VÉLEZ-ERAZO1*, MIRIAM D. HUBINGER1. 1Department of Food Engineering – School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas. *[email protected]
In recent years, the chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) has become a product of great commercial interest, especially due to its high oil content, majorly composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega 3 and 6), that confer several health benefits. However, these compounds are susceptible to oxidation. The aim of this work was to encapsulate chia oil, studying the ultrasonic process variables to obtain single layer (stabilized by whey protein concentrate WPC) and double layer emulsions (stabilized by WPC and pectin), evaluating different energy density levels. As wall materials, maltodextrin and Hi-Cap® 100 were evaluated in different concentrations. The spray drying process has been was conducted at the temperatures of 150 and 180 °C. Emulsions were characterized in relation to stability, size distribution and mean droplet diameter, optical microscopy, surface charge density, rheological behavior and confocal microscopy. Microparticles were evaluated as for moisture content, hygroscopicity, water activity, microstructure, reconstitution and oxidation stability by peroxide index. In the emulsification process with ultrasound were obtained emulsions stabilized by WPC and WPC + pectin stable to phase separation, with drop size between 1.60 to 4.11 μm (WPC) and 0.93 to 1.69 μm (WPC + pectin), monomodal size distribution and Newtonian (WPC) or pseudoplastic flow behavior (WPC + pectin). The process conditions for obtaining the monolayer emulsion were set using low energy density (58.709 kJ/m3) at 100% of power amplitude (128.14 W) and sonication for 2 minutes. For the double-layer emulsion, the process was set as a 2-minute sonication at 75% amplitude (94.37 W), delivering an energy density of 42,718 kJ/m3. The
occurrence of over-processing was observed when high energy densities were applied to the WPC emulsions. Regarding the microparticles characterization, no difference was observed between drying at 150 or 180 °C. The particles stabilized by WPC with addition of Hi-Cap® 100 presented the best physical characteristics, good reconstitution, and especially good oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil, when compared to the microparticles with addition of any other materials. Furthermore, this formulation was obtained by the process condition that represents the lowest energy consumption. Financial Support: CAPES, FAPESP (2015/11984-7).
FORMULATION OF COOKIES FOR PEOPLE INTOLERANT TO GLUTEN USING DEFATTED HAZELNUT FLOUR (GEVUINA AVELLANA, MOL) AND QUINOA FLOUR (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD). DIEGO CARRILLO FREIRE1, MARIO VILLARROEL2, DAVID VILLARREAL1, CAROLINA HUIRIQUEO1, JULIA HAZBUN3. 1Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí, Ecuador. Faculty of Science of the Sea. [email protected] 2Center for Nutritional Genomics Agro-Aquaculture, Technology and Process Unit. Chile. 3University of La Frontera, Faculty of Medicine Department Pediatrics and Child Nutrition, box 54-D, Temuco, Chile.
The development of new products is closely related to the needs and / or consumption trends of the population, therefore food industries and research centers, both public and private, must respond quickly to the changes detected in the consumer market. Undoubtedly the formulation of new products aimed at specific population groups stands out among the main trends that currently exist in the market. We are talking about functional foods intended for people with cardiovascular problems, allergies, hypertension, diabetes, morbid obesity, gluten intolerance. Celiac disease is a chronic enteropathy that causes malabsorption of food, due to an autoimmune reaction to certain proteins (prolamins) that are present in wheat, barley, rye and oats, which are toxic to these individuals, generating atrophy of the small intestine. According to the CODEX Alimentarius, a "gluten-free" food is one whose gluten content does not exceed 20 ppm. Gluten-free natural resources include defatted hazelnut flour, a byproduct of the extraction of oil from this oilseed, rich in protein and dietary fiber. For its part, quinoa is an interesting crop for its nutritional potential, providing good quality proteins. OBJETIVE: Deliver a nutritional alternative to the celiac population, faced with a reality in which the supply of products oriented to satisfy their needs is very small and little varied, consisting of a gluten-free cookie using as main ingredients HDA and HQ. Chemical characterization: Proximal analysis was performed on biscuits prepared according to standard AOAC procedures (1). The caloric density was also quantified by applying the Atwater coefficients. The gluten content was determined using the enzyme immunoassay method of double antibody ELISA sandwich R5. Physical Characterization: Comparative color analysis was performed using the CIELAB method, defining rectangular coordinates (L *, a * and b *) (2). Weight, diameter, height, extensibility index, volume and specific volume were determined by standard AACC procedures (3). Experimental design: Taguchi Methodology, an orthogonal L934 arrangement was used, four independent variables (Hazelnut Flour, Quinoa Flour, Ammonium Bicarbonate and Bake Time, with three work levels each and 9 design points. Sensorial Quality: The composite score test (4) was applied with a descriptive analytical scale of five points where 1 = Poor to 5 = Very good. The sensory panel consisted of 12 trained judges. Working sessions were scheduled under open panel mode, where the characteristics Appearance (A), Color (C), Texture (T), Flavor to hazelnut (SA) and Sweet taste (SD) were determined, determining the relative influence percentages of each, leaving the CS expressed as follows. CS = 0.21 * to + 0.14 * C + 0.14 * T + 0.25 * SA + 0.26 * SD. Shelf Life Test: Optimized cookie samples were stored for 45 days at a temperature of 30 ° C. At intervals of 7 days samples were taken to determine the primary oxidation by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes (DC) (5). Sample weights between 0.05 and 0.5g were diluted with isooctane. Absorbance at 233 nm of the samples was contrasted against an isooctane blank. The DC value was calculated by relating the value of the absorbance to the dilution of the diluted sample. Acceptability test: To determine the acceptability of the product developed at the consumer level, the hedonic sensory test (4) was applied to a group of 35 celiac consumers from the cities of Temuco, Angol, Rancagua and Santiago de Chile, using a scale sensory of 5 points where 1 = I am very displeased, 5 = I like a lot. Results and Discussion: From the research carried out, an optimized formulation (GO) was obtained using the Taguchi methodology. Table 6 shows the comparative analysis of the chemical composition proximal of the cookie optimized for celiac (GO) and a commercial cookie (GC), highlighting the contributions of fiber and proteins of GO. To confirm that the cookies can be considered as a gluten-free product, their content in the optimized product was determined resulting in a concentration of 1.5 ppm. For the physical properties, the results of the GO and GC color analysis showed that no differences were found between the L and a parameters, except for parameter b where GO showed a more golden color. As regards the properties of weight, height, diameter, extensibility index, volume and specific volume (see Table 7) in all these parameters the results of the GO were lower than the GCo, except for the extensibility index. In this particular case it is a product containing fatty ingredients that can undergo peroxidation reactions
(6,7) affecting its quality and consumption. The initial amount of conjugated dienes at time zero was 0.44%, finally obtaining 3.63%, an adequate value because it corresponds to a concentration of peroxide close to 4 meq / kg fat matter. Once the acceptability test was finished, the result was quite good, since it obtained a 100% acceptability between the answers "I am very pleased" and "I am pleased" with 72% and 28% respectively. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that the use of the Taguchi methodology is effective and valuable for food development, where the HDA, BA and TH factors significantly influenced both the sensorial characteristics and the robustness of the developed cookies. This strategy allowed to achieve good results reducing the number of experiments that could influence to shorten the production time. As for the chemical and physical characteristics the cookie stands out for its protein and fiber content, low concentration of prolamines lower than the maximum limit recommended by the CODEX cataloging the cookies cone free of gluten. FUNCTIONAL FOODS EFFECTS ON MICROBIOME OF DIABETIC CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS FABIANA A.H. SARDA1,2, ELIANA B. GIUNTINI2, IARA GUMBREVICIUS1, ANNA P. LACERDA, MARINA Q. SANTOS1, FABIANA S. LIMA1, ELIZABETE W. DE MENEZES2, CHRISTIAN HOFFMANN1,2*. 1Dept. of Food Sciences and Experimental Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences- USP, Brazil; 2Food Research Center (FoRC), Brazil. *[email protected]
Nutrients, such as non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates, can modulate intestinal microbiota and contribute to glucose homeostasis. The consumption of unripe banana flour (UBF), rich in resistant starch (RS), was correlated with a better glucose/insulin profile in healthy volunteers. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients can present intestinal dysfunction due to restrictions on water and dietary fiber ingestion, and also due to medicine side effects; all these events can also lead to intestinal microbiota disbiose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the regular consumption of (UBF) on the intestinal microbiota of diabetic CKD patients and their glucose metabolism. CKD patients (n=29) participated in this cross-over, placebo-controlled study, distributed into: Control group (maltodextrin) and UBF group (11 g), over 6 weeks of regular consumption (3 times/week). Blood biochemical data analysis (lipid profile, glucose, insulin), microbiome and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) profiling were performed at baseline and after the intervention. SCFA were analysed through Gas Chromatography. Stool samples were collected, DNA was extracted and the bacterial 16S rDNA was sequenced (Illumina) to determine the microbial dynamics in the gut microbiome. Sequences were processed using Qiime and Picrust, and analyzed using the R environment for statistical computing. Logistic regression was performed to statistical analysis of biochemical and SCFA data. The UBF consumption by diabetic CKD patients brought a significant better glucose metabolism to this patients (p=0.001). Microbiome data is being analysed to verify correlations between metabolic parameters, intestinal microbiota and SCFA. KEY WORDS: unripe banana flour (UBF); resistant starch; intestinal microbiota; glucose homeostasis; diabetes Financial Support: CNPD Postdoctoral Fellowship, FAPESP FORC 2013/07914-8.
HEAT-INDUCED GELATION OF MICELLAR CASEIN SYSTEMS AS AFFECTED BY CALCIUM IONS ADDITION OR CHELATION JULIANA V. C. SILVA1*, GIREESHKUMAR BALAKRISHNAN1, CHRISTOPHE SCHMITT2, CHRISTOPHE CHASSENIEUX1, TACO NICOLAI1. 1LUNAM, Université du Maine, IMMM UMR-CNRS 6283, Polymers, Colloids and Interfaces, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9, France; 2Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Materials Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 44, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. *[email protected]
Dairy products are mainly based on caseins, which correspond to 80% of the total protein in bovine milk. Around 95% of the caseins in milk are co-assembled with calcium phosphate, forming colloidal particles of about 120 nm in diameter, which are called casein micelles. Micellar casein (MC) in milk is stable to heating up to 100 °C at neutral pH. However, it was reported that heat-induced gels are formed when milk is heated below 50 °C at lower pH values (pH ≤ 5.5). Moreover, it is known that minerals play an important role on the heat stability of milk. However, no investigation so far reported the effect of minerals on heat-induced gelation of MC in aqueous solutions at low pH values. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how the heat-induced gelation of MC in aqueous solutions is affected by the addition of CaCl2 and EDTA (calcium chelator) at a range of pH values. Different amounts of CaCl2 and EDTA (from 0 mM to 50 mM) were added to MC in order to assess the effect of increasing or decreasing the amount of bound Ca2+ on heat-induced gelation of MC. Storage moduli (G’) were measured as a function of the temperature during heating ramps from 20 °C to 90 °C. Heat-induced gel formation was characterised by a sharp increase in G’ at a critical temperature (Tc). After the heating step, the MC systems were kept at 90 °C
for 1h in order to determine the gel stiffness. Regardless the pH, Tc of MC systems decreased with addition of CaCl2. In the presence of CaCl2, Tc decreased from about 60 °C at pH 6.7 to about 30 °C at pH 5.8. Generally, prolonged heating at 90 °C did not result in a significant increase in gel stiffness. The gel stiffness was found to increase weakly with increasing CaCl2 concentration up to 20 mM. Chelation of Ca2+ by EDTA led to a strong increase in Tc, even if the fraction of chelated Ca2+ was small and MC remained intact. The results clearly showed that Ca2+ plays a crucial role on the heat-induced gelation of MC in aqueous solutions, perhaps via formation of Ca-bridges between intact micelles. The knowledge gained in the current work has practical applications in controlling the behaviour of MC during technological processes, and in designing the desired functionality of such proteins in dairy products. Financial Support: Nestlé Research Center (Lausanne, Switzerland)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF JABOTICABA PEEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL INVOLVES UPREGULATION OF GSH SYNTHESIS PATHWAY ANDRÉIA QUATRIN1*, DARIANE T. DA SILVA1, LISIANE CONTE1, CIBELE F. TEIXEIRA1, FERNANDA BARBISAN1, MÁRIO R. MARÓSTICA JÚNIOR2, IVANA B. M. DA CRUZ1, VIVIAN C. BOCHI1, TATIANA EMANUELLI1. 1Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil. 2Food Engineering Faculty, State University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. *[email protected]
Jaboticaba peel powder (JPP) is a polyphenol-rich food matrix. Although polyphenols consumption have been shown to delay disease complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) models, the mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been completely elucidated. The aim of the study was evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with JPP (Myrciaria jaboticaba Vell Berg) on the oxidative stress and hepatic damage in T2DM model in rats. Wistar rats were fed high-fat diet and received a low dose of streptozotocin to induce T2DM. Diabetic rats (n=8/group) received vehicle or JPP at 2.7 (JPP-I), 5.4 (JPP-II) or 10.8 (JPP-III) g/L in drinking water (equivalent to 0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 g anthocyanins/L, respectively) during 8 weeks and were compared to non-diabetic control rats that received vehicle (water containing 0.5% of carboxymethylcellulose). Polyphenols characterization showed that anthocyanin is the major class in JAB (52%) composed by 90.6% of cyanidin-3-glucoside, 8.7% of delphinidin-3-glucoside, 0.5% of peonidin-3-glucoside, and 0.15% of pelargonidin-3-glucoside. Induction of T2DM did not change fasting insulin levels but increased glucose levels by 243% and insulin resistance (FRI) by 57% when compared to control group (p<0.05). Supplementation with JPP-III attenuated the hyperglycemia by 22% without changing insulin secretion (p>0.05), whereas JPP-I decreased insulin levels by 51% and FRI value by 30% compared to diabetic-vehicle group. T2DM induction decreased liver non-protein thiol levels (NPSH, by 50%) compared to diabetic-vehicle group, indicating that GSH the major hepatic non-protein thiol is depleted. The activity of δ -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), a sulfhydryl-containing enzyme that has been suggested as a sensor of oxidative stress was also decreased by 26% in diabetic animals compared to diabetic-vehicle group (p<0.05). JPP-III treatment increased liver NPSH by 86%, which can be explained by the increased synthesis of glutathione, as mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLcs) was increased by 27% when compared with the diabetic-vehicle group. The increased GSH synthesis had a positive balance on the oxidative status of hepatic proteins as supplementation with JPP-III increased δ-ALA-D activity by 30% compared by diabetic-vehicle group. These findings suggest that JAB could have a beneficial effect in liver of T2DM rats by selectively protecting protein through increased GSH synthesis. Financial Support: CNPq processos 5524440/2011-6 e 309227/2013-5.
HIGH PRESSURE ASSISTED INFUSION OF CALCIUM IN BABY CARROTS AND OTHER VEGETABLES NOOPUR S. GOSAVI1*, DEEPTI SALVI1, MUKUND V. KARWE1. 1Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA. *[email protected]
The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of the novel technique of High Pressure Processing (HPP) to infuse short-fall micronutrients in commonly consumed vegetables in the US, In addition, we aim to understand the effects on the physical, chemical, sensory properties, and the bio-accessibility of the infused and inherent nutrients. As a proof of concept, we evaluated the infusion of calcium in baby carrots using HPP. Baby carrots treated with pectinmethylesterase (PME) enzyme solution (29.2 nkat/g) at 37 °C for 45 min, were infused with calcium using varying concentrations of calcium lactate gluconate (CLG) solution under high pressure at various pressure-time combinations. Box-Behnken design was used to study the effects of high pressure (150 MPa – 550 MPa), hold time (5 min – 15 min), and CLG concentration (3 % - 9 % w/v) on the amount of calcium infused (mg per serving size of 85 g), with unprocessed baby carrots as the control. Processed baby carrots were analyzed for calcium using ICP-OES, β-carotene extractability using reverse phase HPLC, texture (hardness (N)) using
compression test on the texture analyzer, and color (L*, hue, chroma, and ΔE). Calcium infusion of up to 100 mg/serving of baby carrots (equivalent to 10 % RDI of calcium) was obtained at 350 MPa for 5 min using 9 % CLG solution. Pressure, hold time, and CLG concentration had a significant effect on calcium infusion. HPP also increased the amount of β-carotene extracted by 4-5 times compared to the control. The texture of the calcium infused baby carrots showed higher hardness than the control, while the color was darker. The preliminary work suggested that HPP could possibly be used as a technique to fortify selected vegetables with missing micronutrients. In order to test this hypothesis and to formulate design rules for HPP infusion based on microstructure, eight different vegetables (brussel sprouts, mushrooms, asparagus, celery, turnips, potatoes, cauliflower, and broccoli) were processed under HPP at 350 MPa for 15 min using 5 % CLG solution. Enhanced infusion of calcium was observed in all these vegetables, at varying levels (60 mg to 190 mg per 100 g of raw vegetable). Based on these findings, we have a preliminary indication that microstructure of the vegetables plays a significant role in determining the extent of HPP assisted calcium infusion. The future work for this research involves performing microstructure analysis using X-Ray microtomography and conducting more experiments to obtaine supporting data. We will also be developing a mathematical model to predict HPP assisted calcium infusion in different vegetables based on their microstructure. A thorough sensory analysis, shelf-life evaluation, and bio-accessibility studies using an in-vitro model TIM-1 will also be performed as a part of this study. HYDROGEL BEADS PRODUCED BY IONIC GELATION CONTAINING ANTHOCYANINS FROM JUSSARA EXTRACT ANA GABRIELA DA S. CARVALHO1*, MARIANA T. C. MACHADO2, MIRIAM D. HUBINGER1 . 1School of Food Engineering at University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Department of Food Technology at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *[email protected]
Jussara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius) is a native species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest that produces an edible palm heart and a fruit. Jussara fruit, when ripe, presents a purple pulp and a high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols and high antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanins are natural pigments and the use of these pigments as raw material by the industry has some limiting factors, mainly in relation to the difficulty in maintaining the color stability in different food matrices and storage conditions. Ionic gelation is an interesting encapsulation method which offers as advantage the easy execution, avoiding higher temperatures and organic solvents. The hydrogel beads present some useful applications in food matrices, as structuring and texturizing agents. Therefore, in order to take advantage of the functional properties of this fruit and to increase the stability of anthocyanins, this study aimed to produce particles by ionic gelation for delivery of compounds extracted from jussara pulp using sodium alginate as gelling agent. For production of particles, ionic gelation of sodium alginate consisted in dripping this polymer in a calcium chloride solution. Encapsulation of anthocyanins from jussara extract occurred by absorption through the porous structure of the hydrogel beads. Ionic gelation technique was combined with complexation process using chitosan, whey protein concentrate and gelatin. The alginate beads were analyzed in relation to moisture content, particle size distribution, uniaxial compression, anthocyanin content, microstructure, stability at 5 °C and release profile in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The particles showed a monomodal distribution, spherical shape and mean diameter varied from 1.0 to 1.2 mm. Complexation technique using cationic polymers was
effective in protecting these pigments during stability in refrigeration conditions. Alginate particles coated with gelatin presented a more stable behavior during four weeks, due to the increased viscosity of this material at lower storage temperature. The gel strength of the hydrogel beads and anthocyanins retention were influenced by zeta potential and viscosity of the materials used in the coating process of the alginate particles with anionic character. Particles coated with chitosan showed higher anthocyanins retention than whey protein concentrate and gelatin. In the intestinal phase, after the gastric phase, the integrity of the particle was maintained for approximately 20 min, releasing the remainder of the anthocyanins present in the particles. Ionic gelation encapsulation process led to the formation of hydrogel beads containing anthocyanins from jussara extract, thus enabling the release profile of the compounds at specific pH conditions, as intestinal fluid. Financial Support: CNPq process number 140280/2013-8.
IMPACT OF EMULSIFIERS MIXTURE AND OILY PHASE PROPERTIES ON THE EMULSION FEATURES ANDRESA GOMES1, ANA LETÍCIA R. COSTA1, ROSIANE L. CUNHA1*. 1Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas-SP, Brazil. *[email protected]
Oil-in-water emulsions have been used to encapsulate, protect, and release lipid-soluble compounds. Kinetic stability is a very important property in the development and use of the emulsions as delivery systems. As a consequence, there is considerable
interest in understanding the relationship between the composition and structure of food emulsions and their physicochemical stability. For this, the impact of the interfacial coatings comprised by a mixture of WPI-Tween 80 (T80) and the oily phase features (sunflower oil -LCT or NEOBEE® 1053 - MCT) on the emulsion properties was investigated. The initial interfacial tension of the water-LCT oil system was about 25 mN/m. After only WPI addition (1% w/w), the initial interfacial tension was reduced to approximately 20 mN/m while interfacial tension reached values of about 10 mN/m increasing T80 concentration in the emulsifier mixture. Similar behavior was observed in the systems composed by MCT oil. This behavior was associated to the higher molecular weight of WPI than Tween 80, which hinders its displacement through the continuous phase besides of the higher time necessary to the proteins adsorption onto the interface. The curves of interfacial tension of systems with LCT or MCT showed differences in the decay rate of tension over time. The systems with LCT oil delayed higher time to reach the equilibrium (about 7000 s), but the system with only WPI (1% w/w) did not reach equilibrium interfacial tension even after 10000 s. In contrast, the equilibrium was reached after 2500s with samples containing MCT and the tension decreased increasing the T80 concentration in the emulsifier mixture. The presence of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid of sunflower oil produces bend in the molecule, increasing the hydrodynamic volume of the carbon chain and hindering the anchorage of emulsifiers onto the lipid droplet. The process is more difficult to proteins than Tween 80, once the proteins need to undergo conformational changes in order catch up the equilibrium. On the other hand, T80 reaches the equilibrium in a higher value of tension in less time, since the hydrophobic tail of the Tween 80 molecule is formed by only one carbonic chain of oleic acid (C18:1). All the O/W emulsions freshly prepared with LCT or MCT and different WPI/T80 concentration in the emulsifiers mixture exhibited Newtonian behavior and low viscosity, which can be related to the small droplets size (less than 1 μm) and low dispersed phase volume fraction (Ø = 0.1). Emulsions with LCT showed slightly higher values of viscosity compared to emulsions with MCT at the same WPI and T80 concentration as a consequence of the higher viscosity of sunflower oil than MCT. The emulsion viscosity was also affected by the high molecular weight of WPI and presence of charged molecules. Emulsions with LCT showed higher droplet size than emulsions with MCT and the droplet size decreased with the increase of Tween 80 concentration in the emulsifier mixture. O/W emulsions exhibited kinetic stability after 7 days of storage, however the destabilization process by a creaming mechanism was observed in systems with higher concentration of WPI. Financial Support: The authors thank CAPES-Brazil (DEA/FEA/PROEX) and FAPESP- Brazil (FAPESP 2007/58017-5 and 2011/06083-0) for their financial support. Andresa Gomes Brunassi thanks CNPq-Brazil (CNPq 140705/2015-5) and Ana Letícia Rodrigues Costa Lelis thanks CNPq-Brazil (CNPq 140710/2015-9) for the fellowship
and Rosiane Lopes Cunha thanks CNPq- Brazil (CNPq 305477/2012-9) for the productivity grant.
IMPACT OF MEXICAN SCHOOLCHILDREN DIET ON THE PRODUCTION OF INTESTINAL METABOLITES DURING IN VITRO COLONIC FERMENTATION VICTOR M. ZAMORA-GASGA, EFIGENIA MONTALVO-GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA G. F. LOARCA-PIÑA, PEDRO A. VÁZQUEZ-LANDAVERDE, JUSCELINO TOVAR, SONIA G. SÁYAGO-AYERDI1*. 1Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic, Laboratorio Integral de Investigación en Alimentos, División de Estudios de Posgrado, Av Instituto Tecnológico No 2595, Col Lagos del Country CP 63175, Tepic, Nayarit México. *[email protected]
The nutritional transition promotes the development of childhood obesity. Currently, Mexico is affected by this serious public health problem. The nutritional and functional characterization of a whole menu has a number of advantages over the study of single nutrients. Since breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day. In this study, childhood-specific dietary patterns and their relationship with overweight-obesity prevalence, nutrient profiles and types of foods consumed were studied. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 724 randomly selected schoolchildren between 9 to 12 years old from Nayarit State, Mexico was performed. Data on anthropometric characteristics and food intake were recorded. Additionally, we evaluate the metabolite profile produced by in vitro human colonic fermentation of the isolated indigestible fraction (IF) from three different Mexican breakfast (M-B) menus (Modified “MM-B”, traditional “TM-B”, and alternative “AM-B”), previously identified as commonly consumed by Mexican schoolchildren in Nayarit State, Mexico. The M-B consists in egg, corn tortilla, beans (higher in TM-B), sugarcane, chocolate powder (higher in AM-B), and milk, combined in different proportions. Seven dietary patterns and three specific diets were identified by multivariate analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by high legume, snack, and low in beverage intake was negatively associated with weight and body mass index. The overall overweight and obesity prevalence was 20.2% and 20.6%, respectively. Diet type significantly had influenced (p<0.05) in protein, carbohydrates, and fat intake but did not show correlation with the overweight-obesity status. On the other hand, the IF in all breakfasts was about 4.7–5.6 g/100 g FW, with a relatively high content of protein (≈ 21%), which might have negative physiological implications. Fermentation of IF from TM-B resulted in the largest pH decrease after 72 h (pH = 6.07), with a low short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (0.75 to 47.23 mmol/L), but greater relative concentration of other fatty acids (FA) (C7, C8, C9). Besides, 55 volatile compounds were
detected in the fermentation media by Headspace-SPME-GC/MS and three principal components (PC) were identified. PC1 was influenced by SCFA production, low FA esters production (< 8C), and low volatile organic acids production. PC2 was influenced by the decrease in pH and an increase in antioxidant capacity (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that the production of different metabolites in the luminal medium may affect the pH and antioxidant status in the colon. Fermentation of IF from TM-M, assessed after 48 and 72 h, showed the highest correlation for PC2; the metabolic pattern registered for this IF maybe considered beneficial. Dietary patterns and gut metabolites interactions should be considered to design preventive nutrition intervention programs. Financial Support: Zamora-Gasga, VM; acknowledge the fellowship to CONACYT- Registration number: 253795) and Sáyago-Ayerdi, SG; would also like to acknowledge the financial support to DGEST-5408.14.
INFLUENCE OF BLANCHING TIME ON STARCH DIGESTIBILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF OILFREE CHIPS TREATED BY MICROWAVE DRYING ALINE I. GOMIDE1*, JOÃO B. LAURINDO1. 1Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil. * [email protected]
The microwave multi-flash drying process (MWMFD) is effective for producing crispy foods highly porous, exhibiting potential to produce oil-free potato chips with attractive texture and flavor. However, because of starch gelatinization, processed potatoes generally present higher starch bioavailability and higher glycemic index (GI) than the raw potato. It has been reported that foods with low GI reduce the risk of chronic disease. In the context of increased healthy concern, it is important to study processing conditions (temperature and time) for controlling starch gelatinization and thus the GI of oil-free potato chips. In addition, different processing conditions can affect the sensory characteristics of the final product. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate the effect of different times of blanching (drying pretreatment) on the starch bioavailability, microstructure, sensory characteristics (appearance, flavor, and texture), as well as the acceptability of the resulting oil-free chips dried by MWMFD. For this purpose, potato slices of 5 mm of thickness and will be blanched at the same temperature (97 ºC) for different times and then dehydrated by MWMFD process. The in vitro digestibility of starch will be determined for each treatment, by measuring the fractions of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), resistant starch (RS) and the GI. For the sensory analysis, a semi-trained panel will define the descriptive terminology and quantify the intensity of each sensory attribute for each treatment, while the acceptability test will be conducted by consumers of potato chips. Correlations for each sensory attribute with RDS, SDS and RS, as well as with GI will be evaluated. The acceptability of oil-free chips with different GI will be also evaluated. INFLUENCE OF SOLID FAT CONTENT ON TEXTURAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF EMULSION GELS DREHER JOHANNES1, BLACH CAROLIN1, GIBIS MONIKA1 and WEISS JOCHEN1*. 1University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Stuttgart, Germany. *[email protected]
Consumption of meat and processed meat products has become target of debate in the recent years for several reasons. Meatbased foods generally require more energy, land use, and water resources than plant-based meals. For instance, a large extend of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest can be can be linked to cattle ranching. Especially regarding the fact of a growing world population that is anticipated to be reach over 9 billion people. Under these circumstances a reduction in meat production seems inevitable. However, meat and processed meat products are an integral part of many people’s diet. Providing plant-based products that resemble the organoleptic and sensory properties of traditional processed meat products could help to shift the human diet towards less meat consumption. Such products require technologies to structure liquid oil to a soft-solid material. Animal fat, which consists of, mainly saturated, triacylglycerides embedded in a network of adipose tissue, confers textural and organoleptic properties to products that cannot be obtained when simply replacing the solid fat with liquid oil. One possibility for oil structuring is the preparation of so-called emulsion gels. Emulsion gels are viscoelastic materials in which oil droplets are embedded in a gel matrix. In order to obtain the desired mouth feel and texture, animal fat replacers might need a certain solid fat content. Up to date the effect of the solid fat content on the textural and viscoelastic properties of emulsion gels is not completely understood. Our studies aim to elucidate the role of solid fat on the textural and viscoelastic properties of emulsion gels in order to enable the food industry to tailor these properties of fat replacements for various products. In our recent research we prepared emulsions with a total lipid content of 70% (w/w) using different concentrations of soy protein isolate (SPI) (protein content >90%) as an emulsifier. The addition of solid fat was varied between 0-30% (w/w). Emulsions were
gelled in order to obtain a soft-solid material. Particle size distribution was measured by static light scattering and image analysis. Microstructure was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) staining the lipid phase with Nile red (0.0014%). Small deformation properties were investigated by performing amplitude and frequency sweeps with a rotational rheometer. Large deformation properties were evaluated by performing a texture profile analysis and thermal behavior was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results show that hardness and elasticity are strongly imparted by the amount of solid fat in the gels. When exceeding a certain content of solid fat the gel properties are solely determined by the plastic behavior of a crystalline fat network rather than by elastic properties conferred by the gel network. Furthermore, the amount of protein in the continuous phase influences the textural properties. Increased protein content led to higher hardness as well as increased elasticity of the gels. Financial Support: This work was supported by the FEI (Forschungskreis der Ernährungsindustrie e.V.), Bonn, Germany via AiF/BMWi (AiF 18622 N).
INVERSE METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DURING FREEZING OF FOODS IN 3D 1,2* 2 1 2 JULIO M. VIDAURRE-RUIZ , WALTER F. SALAS-VALERIO . Universidad Señor de Sipan, Lambayeque, Perú; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú *[email protected]/ [email protected] The convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is a parameter necessary to design and optimize the freezing process of foods. This coefficient depends on the shape and dimension of food, the temperature at the surface, the rugosity and the characteristic of fluid flow. Different approaches have been reported to determinate h, some use highly conductive materials that do not reflect the real food, others just calculated an average h without considered the surfaces in contact with the food, which can influence the heat transfer phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this research was to modeling heat transfer during freezing process of cubic particles of food (3D) using finite difference method considerate two positions of food, one suspended and the other supported on the surface, including the inverse methodology to find a pseudo h that represent the resistance to flow of heat from the surface to the food. The h values were estimated by optimization of the root mean square error (RMSE) of the experimental and predicted time -temperatures data. This 3 methodology was validated using cubic particles of ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm ), which is a tuber consumed in Andean regions. The thermophysical properties as density, specific heat and thermal conductivity were calculated using the composition of ulluco at unfrozen and frozen temperatures, also the initial temperature of freezing and unfrozen water were calculated using semi-empirical equations. The experimental procedure was made in a forced-air freezing tunnel at -25°C. The finite difference scheme in 3D was written in programming language Visual Basic 2015 (Microsoft Corporation), where internal nodes were programmed to transfer heat by conduction, considering the six nodal connections and external nodes were programmed to transfer heat by convection using energy balance method. A nodal network of 5x5x5 was created and the simulations were carried out with a time step of 0.25 s. The results showed that the 2 minimum value of RMSE was achieved using the value of haverage = 19 ± 2 W/m °C for the cubic particle suspended and for the particle cubic in contact with the tunnel, the minimum value of RMSE was achieved using the value of h 1= 20.4 ± 1 2 2 W/m °C and h2 = 296.4 ± 2 W/m °C. The value of the pseudo heat transfer coefficient (h2) showed there is a heat resistance to the heat flow between the surface contact (metal) and ulluco, that means ulluco did not get immediately the surface contact temperature. The inverse method developed could be applied to different freezing system in order to select the best system or optimize the freezing process of food. Financial Support: PhD scholarship of J.M. Vidaurre-Ruiz is provided by “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica" (CONCYTEC, Peru).
LONG CIRCULATORY POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES OF BETULINIC ACID: DEVELOPMENT, MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION, PHARMACOKINETICS AND ANTITUMOR EFFICACY IN SOLID TUMOR MODEL ANKIT SANEJA1,2, RAVINDRA DUBEY1, PREM N. GUPTA1,2. 1Formulation & Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu – 180001, India, 2Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), Jammu - 180001, India. [email protected]
Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases and chemotherapy forms the basis of cancer treatment. However, major reasons for the failure of chemotherapy are poor aqueous solubility, severe cytotoxicity side effects and efflux transporter specificity which result in poor pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic agents. The clinical application of betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupine-type triterpene, with promising antitumor activity, is limited due to its extremely poor aqueous solubility and relatively
short half-life in blood. To solve these problems, herein, we developed BA loaded polylactide-co-glycolide- monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PLGA-mPEG) nanoparticles. The PLGA-mPEG co-polymer was synthesized, characterized using NMR and FTIR. Betulinic acid loaded PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The developed nanoparticles had a desirable particle size (~147 nm) and exhibited spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PLGA-mPEG NPs were able to evade the uptake by macrophages (i.e. J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 cells) as compare to PLGA nanoparticles. In vitro cytotoxicity in MCF7 and PANC-1 cells demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity of BA loaded PLGA-mPEG NPs as compare to free BA. The enhanced cytotoxicity of BA NPs was also supported by increase in cellular apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, generation of high reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle arrest. Further, intravenous pharmacokinetics study revealed that BA loaded PLGA-mPEG NPs could prolong the circulation of BA and remarkably enhanced half life by ~7.21 folds. Consequent to this, in vivo studies in Ehrlich tumor (solid) model following intravenous administration demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy of BA NPs as compare to native BA. Moreover, BA NPs treated Ehrlich tumor mice demonstrated no biochemical, hematological and histological toxicities. These findings collectively indicated that BA loaded PLGA-mPEG NPs might serve as a promising nanocarrier for improved therapeutic efficacy of BA. Financial Support: Mr. Ankit Saneja thanks Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India for providing Senior Research Fellowship. The study was supported by funding from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India (MLP6006).
LONGLIFE: FOOD FERMENTATION FOR PURPOSE – BIOPRESERVATION IVAN SUGRUE1,2,3, R. PAUL ROSS2,4, COLIN HILL2,3 AND CATHERINE STANTON1,2,*. 1Department of Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland; 2APC Microbiome Institute, 3School of Microbiology, 4College of Science Engineering and Food Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. *[email protected]
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used in the fermentation of food and drink for preservation and improved functionality for thousands of years, first as wild fermenters and more recently as characterised applied pure cultures. LAB contribute to taste and texture of fermented products while inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms through production of compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, and other bioactive metabolites. Novel LAB strains isolated on selective media from raw milk samples of cow, sheep, and goat, and other sources, were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds using a seeded agar overlay based method followed by an agar well diffusion based assay. Strains with antimicrobial activity were characterised by 16s rRNA gene sequencing to determine species. Chosen strains will be applied in the generation of fermented milk products to improve functionality and shelf life, with enhanced activity vs. spoilage organisms and food pathogens. A baseline product will be developed using commercially available starter culture strains and characterised alongside commercially available products for their bio- and techno-functional attributes, including analysis of microbiological composition, rheological and textural properties, sensory and shelf-life. These products will act as a benchmark for subsequent developed fermentates which will undergo the same analyses. A further study will compare the effect of chosen strains, and commercially available starter cultures in yoghurt fermentation of milks collected from cows on traditional Irish grass pasture vs. an indoor TMR fed group which have previously demonstrated compositional differences in other milk products. Ex vivo faecal fermentations will be performed on selected developed products and ingredients to establish effect on the human intestinal microbiota using a modified in vitro colonic faecal fermentation system. Changes in microbiota composition will be assessed in addition to changes in short change fatty acid levels to establish potential health benefits of developed products. Financial Support: Ivan Sugrue is in receipt of a Teagasc Walsh Fellowship. The financial support of the following is gratefully acknowledged: JPI Food Processing for Health funded ‘Longlife’ and Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number SFI/12/RC/2273 in the APC Microbiome Institute.
MICROFLUIDIC PRODUCTION OF DOUBLE EMULSION AS TEMPLATES FOR β-CAROTENELOADED GIANT LIPOSOMES FORMATION MARIANO MICHELON1, YUTING HUANG2, DAVID A. WEITZ2, ROSIANE L. CUNHA1*. 1University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, USA. *[email protected]
The double water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are three-phase dispersions composed of inner aqueous droplets dispersed in larger oil droplets, which are themselves dispersed in another aqueous phase. A variety of applications has been demonstrated due to their unique and highly hierarchized structure, such as encapsulation and controlled release of active compounds in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, and materials science applications. Besides, W/O/W double emulsions show great potential as templates for preparing functional particles, such as solid lipid capsules, polymersomes, and giant liposomes.
The dewetting of the phospholipid middle phase of double emulsion templates creates giant unilamellar liposomes (GUVs, >1 μm) with molecular bilayers. However, preparation of W/O/W double emulsion templates by conventional methods is not trivial and, in general, two emulsification steps are necessary. To overcome these drawbacks, the microfluidic emulsification devices consisting of microchannel networks have received increased attention as versatile and powerful tools for preparing in a singlestep highly monodisperse W/O/W double emulsions. We demonstrated the microfluidic production of double emulsion droplets aiming formation of β-carotene-incorporated giant liposomes for food applications. For this purpose, glass-capillary microfluidic devices were fabricated to create a truly three-dimensional flow aiming production of giant unilamellar liposomes by solvent evaporation process after W/O/W double emulsion droplet templates formation. The great challenge of microfluidic production of monodisperse and stable W/O/W double emulsion templates for this proposal is the replacement of organic solvents potentially toxic for phospholipids dissolution. Besides, the high cost of several semi-synthetic phospholipids commonly used for giant liposome formation remains as the major technological challenges to be overcome. Thus, β-carotene-incorporated giant liposomes were generated using biocompatible solvents with low-toxicity potential (ethyl acetate and pentane), and nonpurified soybean lecithin - a food-grade phospholipid mixture with low cost - by dewetting and evaporation of the solvents forming the oily intermediate phase of W/O/W double emulsion droplet templates. Our results showed monodisperse βcarotene-loaded giant liposomes with diameter ranging between 100 μm and 180 μm and a stability of approximately 10 days. In this way, a single-step microfluidic process with highly accurate control of size distribution was developed. This microfluidic process proposed is potentially useful for a broad range of applications in protection and delivery of food and pharmaceutical active compounds. Keywords: vesicles; β-carotene; capillary; encapsulation Financial Support: CNPq (140283/2013-7 and 307168/2016-6) and FAEPEX/UNICAMP (2146-16)
MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL PROCESSING OF FOOD CONSUMED BY ECUADORIAN ADOLESCENTS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY PAULINA ESCOBAR 1,2*; SUSANA ANDRADE1; ANGÉLICA OCHOA1; NIMA YAGHMAEI2; SILVANA DONOSO 1; JOHN VAN CAMP2. 1Cuenca University, Cuenca, Ecuador; 2Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. *[email protected]
Background and objectives: Around two billion people worldwide are at health risk due to micronutrients deficiencies which are mainly caused by insufficient micronutrient intake. The objective of this study is to analyze the importance of natural or minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods as sources of micronutrients among Ecuadorian adolescents. Methods and results: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to April 2009 among 606 adolescents attending 8th, 9th and 10th grades in an urban setting (Cuenca-Ecuador). Data collection included anthropometric data, dietary intake (2 day - 24 h recall), and socioeconomic status. Linear regression models adjusted by gender, socioeconomic status and age were used to assess the association of micronutrient intake with processing level of food. The 55.9%, 36.3% and 7.8% of daily energy intake of adolescents comes from natural o minimally, ultra-processed and processed foods respectively. Higher levels of processing in food were significantly (all p-values<0.001) and inversely associated with the content of Vitamin A (β=31.56mg/1000kcal), Vitamin C (β=-3.04mg/1000kcal), Niacin (β=-1.75mg/1000kcal), Riboflavin (β= -0.07mg/1000kcal), Thiamin (β= -0.13mg/1000kcal), Iron (β=-1.40mg/1000kcal), Phosphorus (β=-59.1mg/1000kcal), Zinc (β=-0.55mg/1000kcal) and Calcium (β=-13.11mg/1000kcal). Conclusions: The second source of daily energy intake among Ecuadorian adolescents was ultraprocessed food which contains lowest levels of micronutrients. These results emphasize the need of programs aimed to discourage the consumption ultra-processed food among adolescents and the need of policies to control the production of such food in terms of micronutrient content. Financial Support: Project VLIR-IUC “Food, Nutrition and Health”.
MICROSTRUCTURE OF ENCAPSULATED SOURSOP (Annona muricata L.) LEAVES EXTRACT BY SPRAY DRYING OSCAR B. JORDAN1, LESLIE V. VIDAL2, CARLOS VON PLESSING2, JOSE VILLAGRA2. 1Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú; 2Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile. *[email protected]
The current technologies of delivering nutrients and food ingredients available for the Food Industry do no ensure properly the availability and functionality of bioactive compounds that promotes health. In the last years the consumption of Annona muricata leaves has been extended due to its anticancer properties attributed to phytochemicals like acetogenins, alkaloids and
phenolic compounds. One of the most promising technologies that can solve the difficulties as mentioned is microencapsulation, this technology implies the trapping and controlled delivering of bioactive compounds usually sensible to environmental factors; although it has been successfully used in pharmaceutical industry, in the food industry is relatively a new technology maybe due to the reduced number of GRAS agents and proper techniques, resulting a poor conservation of the active compound. The objective of this research was to study the effect of type and concentration of the encapsulating agent on the microstructure of encapsulated soursop (Annona muricata L.) leaves extract by spray drying. The extraction was performed using grinded leaves macerated at 70 °C for 30 min immersed in a hydroalcoholic solution (20 % Ethanol) in a relation 1 to 36 (w/v). The extract was further centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 30 min, the supernatant was mixed with Arabic gum (AG) and Maltodextrin (MD) at 5 and 10 % and then the mixtures were homogenized in an Ultra Turrax for 5 min at 10000 and 15000 rpm at environmental temperature (22±2°C). Subsequently the drying was performed in an spray dryer (Büchi B-290) with a feed nozzle diameter of 1 mm at an inlet temperature of 140 °C with a feed rate at 32.5 m3/h. Structural characteristics (inside and outside) were observed using a SEM Microscope (JEOL JSM-6380 LV), with an increasing magnification ranging from 1200 to 20000x. Microphotographs were obtained using the Jeol scanning electron microscope software. Spherical particles of different sizes (0.9 – 1.6 μm) with a central void were obtained by this technique, inferring that the core is dispersed through the wall; it was found that microstructure is dependent of concentration (5 and 10%) and the type of encapsulating agent (GA and MD), resulting a positive correlation between the encapsulant concentration and the sphericity of microcapsules, being more spherical as solid content increases, especially for MD, this also reduced fragmentation of microcapsules. As a consequence it is necessary to employ well characterized encapsulants in terms of microstructural properties to a better understanding of liquids transformation to fluidized dried solids. Financial Support: This research is the result of an internship financed by Alianza del Pacífico.
MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CAN BE USED FOR SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ACYLATED ANTHOCYANINSFROM RED CABBAGE MARCELLA C. MARQUES1*, LILIAN R.B. MARIUTTI2, ADRIANA Z. MERCADANTE1. 1Department of Food Science - School of Food Engineering - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2Department of Food and Nutrition - School of Food Engineering - University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Nowadays, there is an increased interest in new environmental-friendly extraction techniques. Among them, microwaveassisted extraction (MAE) can be highlighted as a promising alternative to conventional extraction due to the shortened processing time and low solvent demand. MAE relies on the fast heating generated by the microwaves to facilitate the migration of the interest compounds from the matrix to the extraction solution. Anthocyanins are red to blue hydrophilic pigments widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the effect of MAE on the anthocyanin profile is not yet well known. The effect of MAE on the anthocyanin profile of lyophilized red cabbage was studied by means of a factorial experimental design (23) in which the independent variables were HCl concentration (0.3 – 0.7%), temperature (90 – 110°C) and volume of acidified methanol (28 - 42 mL). The samples were subjected to a maximum power of 850 W for 1 min to allow the solution to reach the set temperature. After that, the temperature was maintained constant for 5 min at 350 W. The response variables were the concentrations of the anthocyanins caffeoyl-coumaryl-derivatives, caffeoyl-sinapyl-derivatives, caffeoyl-feruloylderivatives and non-acylated anthocyanins. The profiles of anthocyanins obtained by MAE and traditional extraction methods was compared. The anthocyanins were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS . Twenty anthocyanins derived from cyanidin were identified in the extracts obtained by MAE, from which twelve acylated anthocyanins were not detected by the traditional method. MAE extracted higher amounts of anthocyanins than traditional method. Low HCl concentration, low temperature and low volume of acidified methanol produced greater extraction yield of caffeoyl-coumaryl-derivative anthocyanins due to the negative influence of high temperature. Although the effect of the studied variables on the caffeoyl-sinapyl-derivative anthocyanins was non-significant, a higher concentration was achieved by the same MAE conditions described above. Reflecting this pattern, the total anthocyanin content was also higher by MAE. However, the extraction of caffeoyl-feruloyl-derivatives was favored by high HCl concentration and high temperature. The differential extraction is noteworthy because it allows controlling major anthocyanin extracted by controlling the extraction conditions, while also allowing one to modulate the chemical stability. There was no evidence that the anthocyanins are degraded to low molecular weight compounds during MAE under the tested conditions. Financial Support:CNPq, FAPESP and CAPES.
MODERATE ELECTRIC FIELDS EFFECTS ON WHEY PROTEIN´S STRUCTURE, INTERACTIONS AND GELATION RUI M. RODRIGUES1*, ANTÓNIO A. VICENTE1 and RICARDO N. PEREIRA1. 1CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Proteins are important food constituents with a high nutritional and functional value. They are one of the food constituents most affected by heat, causing their unfolding, aggregation and gelation. Ohmic heating’s potential to improve the quality of foodstuffs have been demonstrated due to its uniform and fast heating, together with its presumed moderate electric field (MEF) related effects. The electric effects on foodstuffs, and particularly on proteins, are not yet fully disclosed and understood. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of MEF on denaturation, aggregation, structural and functional properties of whey protein systems, either on their commercial forms as WPI or in their purified fractions (i.e. β-lactoglobulin). Thermal and thermo-electric treatments were applied on whey protein solutions in a relevant range of conditions: protein concentration, pH, salt content, temperature and time of treatment. Protein denaturation, aggregation and gelation processes were followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), rheology and microscopy techniques. The structural features of the proteins were accessed by fluorescence techniques, circular dichroism and reactivity of free sulfhydryl (SH) groups. Our results show that the presence of MEF gave rise to different denaturation kinetics, aggregation pattern and extent, structural and viscoelastic properties of the resultant hydrogels. Furthermore, the structural studies performed in β-lactoglobulin have unveiled significant changes in the protein’s secondary structure, tryptophan exposure, surface hydrophobicity and free SH content caused by MEF in relation to a conventional thermal treatment. These findings evidence that electric effects related with this technology should not be overlooked and suggest that MEF may provide a novel method for production of whey protein-based systems with distinctive structural and functional properties. Financial Support: This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2013 unit and COMPETE 2020 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006684), and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte. The authors Rui M. Rodrigues, Ricardo N. Pereira, also thank to FCT their financial grants with SFRH/BD/110723/2015, SFRH/BPD/81887/2011, respectively.
MODIFYING THE MELTING PROFILE OF LIPIDS WITH MONOTERPENES PAULA V. A. PONTES1, MÓNIA A. R. MARTINS1,2, ANTONIO J. A. MEIRELLES1, SIMÃO P. PINHO3, JOÃO A. P. COUTINHO2, GUILHERME J. MAXIMO1 AND EDUARDO A. C. BATISTA1*. 1EXTRAE – FEA, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2CICECO, Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 3Associate Laboratory LSRE-LCM, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal. *[email protected]
In food products such as margarine, ice cream and chocolate, for example, to ensure quality in the final product it is interesting to control crystallization/melting of the components during the processing steps. These products are based on the use of oils and fats, whose main constituents are triacylglycerols, structures formed by glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids and which belong to the group of lipids. Fat bloom is one of the main defects that can occur in chocolate, in which it may be related to fat crystallization or the migration of the fat present in the fillings to the top layer of the product. One way to control this deformity would be to know and to control the correct crystallization during and after the production of chocolate. Research has shown that mixing limonene, a terpene, with cocoa butter, one of the components of chocolate, provides positive aspects in the product, such as decrease in viscosity, decrease in melting temperature, alteration and kinetics of crystal formation. So, the aimed for this study was analyzing the crystallization behavior mixtures containing monoterpenes (L(−)-menthol and thymol) with seven fatty acids (C8:0-C18:0, including C18:1). The binary systems containing monoterpenes (1) + fatty acids (2) were prepared to cover the entire composition range of the phase diagram in molar fraction of 0.1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the melting temperature and melting enthalpy of the samples. The top peak temperature of the thermogram was taken to be the melting temperature of the sample. In addition, the experimental data were correlated by thermodynamic models, such as by molecular models (two and three-suffix Margules) and by the predictive models (UNIFAC and Modified UNIFAC (Dortmund)), to describe the solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of the mixture. 14 phase diagrams of binary systems containing monoterpenes and seven fatty acids were constructed in this work. All samples showed eutectic behavior, that is, decreases in the melting temperature of the samples when compared to the melting temperatures of the pure compounds. Decreases in the melting temperature of up to 50.11 K were observed for experimental data. The three-suffix Margules model was the best to fit the experimental data in comparison with the other models, presenting an Average Absolute Deviation (AAD) of 1.03 K. In relation to the models based on the contribution of groups, UNIFAC Original correlated better the
experimental data than Modified UNIFAC (Dortmund), with the AAD of 2.44 K. From the results obtained, it was observed that, when mixed with monoterpenes, there is a decrease in the melting temperature of the fatty acids. Being that some liquid samples at room temperature were obtained from the solid compounds mixtures. Therefore, it becomes interesting the mixtures of these two compounds, to obtain determined crystallization behavior required for a particular product, like chocolate. Financial Support: The authors are grateful to CNPq (406856/2013-3, 305870/2014-9, 309780/2014-4), FAPESP (2014/21252-0, 2016/08566-1) and FAEPEX/UNICAMP (0125/16) for the financial support.
NEW FINDINGS IN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE WHEY PEPTIDES CONSIDERING STRUCTUREACTIVITY RESPONSES LUÍSA O. L. ROSA1, JOSÉ E. SANTOS-SILVA2, CAROLINE MELLINGER-SILVA3*, LOURDES M. C. CABRAL3. 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; 3Embrapa Food Industry, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *[email protected]
Hypertension is a chronic disease which affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. This disease can also be modulated by diet and whey peptides may be included as vasorelaxant molecules in it. The relation between structure and functionality of whey peptides, as well as how processes, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, could interfere in this relation have been extensively studied. Pepsin is an enzyme widely used for obtaining antihypertensive peptides because of its affinity for hydrophobic, preferably aromatic amino acid residues, which are associated with the inhibition of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE). Furthermore, hypotensive peptides are also known for their low molecular masses, generally under 3 KDa. Even though most of the studies focus on ACE inhibition during the vascular response to high blood pressure, other mechanisms are also recruited from the vessels, showing the importance of studying models which take into consideration other pathways such as nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase, blockage of calcium channels and activating AT1 receptors. The present study proposed to produce a whey protein hydrolysate, by the use of a commercial pepsin, investigating whether the generated peptides could be able to promote vascular relaxation in intact rat aortic rings and assessing in which molecular mass range are the peptides with higher hypotensive potential after membrane fractionation. A whey protein concentrate (88%) was hydrolyzed with commercial pepsin (1.91% w/w) for 3h at pH 2 and 37°C. The hydrolysate obtained was then sequentially fractionated by the use of 10 and 5 KDa membranes cut-offs. The fractions were freeze dried for further chemical and biological analyses. The crude hydrolysate presented a wide peptide profile, composed by hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. After membrane fractionation, RP-HPLC chromatograms showed the retention of β-lactoglobulin and a poor peptide profile in the retained fraction from the 10 KDa membrane (R10). The permeate from 10 KDa (P10) and the retained from 5 KDa (R5) filtration processes presented similar rich profiles, which were more concentrated in R5. Lastly, the permeated from 5 KDa membrane (P5) resulted in a varied molecular profile, but in low concentration. Altogether, 22 peptides were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-MS, from which 2 of them have already been described as potent vasorelaxant agents
(VYPFPGPIHNSLPQNIPPLTQT and PVVVPPFLQPEVM –β-casein fragments). The biological assays from the crude hydrolysate presented a vascular relaxation of 50% when intact aortic rings were used. After the membrane fractionation, the highest vascular response of 62.4%, was revealed in the fraction R5, followed by 36.6% and 31.1% for the permeate and retained of 10 KDa, respectively. These are important data, since the literature reports low molecular weight peptides as primarily responsible for vascular relaxation, taking into consideration mainly the inhibition of ACE, while our data showed that the P5 presented a vasorelaxant effect of only 8.8%.The findings of the present study may diverse from the literature since it uses an intact vessel model, which comprises mechanisms that goes beyond ACE inhibition. However, more research is being carried out to further investigate the involved responses. These findings could be of great industrial interest since innovative data revealed that larger whey peptides may play a role as antihypertensive molecules, and comparing the crude hydrolysate with the fractions from membrane filtration, a choice for the crude one could be the most cost-effective in terms of large scale production without significant loss in bioactivity. Financial Support: CAPES and FAPERJ E-26/110.698/201
NEW METHOD FOR CAROTENOIDS EXTRACTION FROM ORANGE PEEL: A GREEN CHEMISTRY APPROACH DANIELLA C. MURADOR1*, PAULA L. G. MARTINS2, ANNA R. C. BRAGA3, VERIDIANA V. DE ROSSO1. 1Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, Brazil; 2Federal Institute of São Paulo, Registro, Brazil; 3Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, Brazil. *[email protected]
Carotenoids are natural pigments, which could be used in substitution to artificial pigments by the food industry. Moreover, they present antioxidant properties, which characterize their action to combat reactive oxygen species, contributing to
incidence reduction of some degenerative diseases, in humans. Ionic liquids (IL) may represent a viable alternative to the conventional solvents in carotenoids extraction, minimizing contaminations and allowing the use of this natural pigment by the food industry. Brazil is responsible for 50% of world production of orange juice, implying in generation of large amounts of waste, representing an interesting source of carotenoids. So, the aim of this work was to determine a new method of carotenoid extraction with IL from the orange peel. A complete experimental design 23 (8 assays and 3 central points) was performed, using the software Statistica 12. Total carotenoids content was evaluated as the main response to the effects of the variables: proportion of IL1/IL2 (being LI1 and LI2: 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) and 1-n-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), respectively); proportion of sample/IL; and number of extractions. The time of extraction and proportion of IL/co-solvent were fixed in 5 minutes and 1:2, respectively, according to the previously results obtained by a fractional experimental design 25-1. The carotenoids were determined by HPLC-DAD. The majority carotenoid identified was the cis-violaxanthin. Total carotenoids content varied from 27.05 to 39.99 μg/g of dry matter. In relation to the variable proportion of IL1/IL2, the [BMIM][Cl] affected positively (p>95%) the total carotenoids content. The variable number of extractions was also positively significant (p>95%), that is, a higher number of extractions (from the lowest level to the highest level), increased the response. Finally, the variable proportion of sample/IL was not statistically significant (p<95%), allowing the researches to select the level which best applies to the assay. So, we defined the proportion of sample/IL in 1:3, since this was the minimum sufficient proportion to solubilize the sample on the IL. Moreover, it was confirmed that the [BMIM][Cl] was more efficient in the carotenoids extraction from orange peel, than the [BMIM][BF4], and the number of extractions was defined in its highest level (6 times), since it was noted that higher number of extractions led to higher total carotenoids content. Thus, these were the conditions determined for a new method of carotenoid extraction from the orange peel, using IL. Financial Support: FAPESP process number: 2015/26789-5.
NUTRI BAR: AN EFFECTIVE NUTRITIVE SOLUTION FOR VICTIMS OF HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES *SYEDA M. ZAHRA, SARFRAZ HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD NADEEM, AYESHA RAFIQUE and FARHAT RASHID. Institute of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. *[email protected]
Humanitarian emergencies are main cause of disturbance in nutritional status of victims leading to nutrient deficiency diseases and then to death. People of Pakistan are already suffering from hidden hunger and indeed very prone to develop such noncommunicable diseases whenever any catastrophy like floods or earthquake hits. The study was conducted in IFSN, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan with objective to develop nutri bar from cheap cost natural ingredients for victims of humanitarian emergencies. Nutri bar was developed by using natural and indigenous ingredient in 6 different proportions. This unique nutritive solution was evaluated for nutritional content, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics. T0 having mixture of dried apricot, cardamom, dry milk powder, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, apricot kernel, crushed coconut, jaggery and chocolate had maximum moisture percentage 16.35%, crude protein percentage 9.45% was found as maximum in T2. Addition of powdered egg white, dried pumpkin powder and roasted barley flour had enhanced the protein percentage. Fiber in crude form was found in maximum percentage varying from 6.37% to 5.47% in treatments T3 and T2. Ash percentage varied from between 3.50% and 3.11% in T1 and T0, respectively. Gross energy value of T2 was maximum i.e. 339.615 kcal/100g. Mean values for TPC of treatments varied between 3.27 and 3.23 Log10cfu/g, while mean values for mold count of nutri bar treatments varied between 2.77 and 2.88 Log10cfu/g. T2 was best in evaluation for organoleptic
characteristics on basis of 9-point hedonic scale. It is evident from the outcomes that the nutri bar is a cheap in cost yet nutritive solution for victims of humanitarian emergencies. Efficacy study was not done due to lack of funds. Nutri bar will supple the required amount of nutrients and energy to save victims of humanitarian emergencies and it has tendency to replace the non researched as well as wrongly nutrient labelled emergency foods already present in market of Pakistan. It will be a boon for humanity if aid providing NGOs insist nutraceutical industries to commercially prepare nutri bar with following proportion of ingredients: Cereals: 1.5gm of roasted chickpea powder, roasted barley flour and puffed rice powder each, 8gm of dried apricot paste, 0.25gm of dried pumpkin powder, 0.25gm of dried egg white powder, 1gm of dry milk powder, 0.5gm of powdered cinnamon and cardamom each, 0.25gm of powdered black pepper and fennel each, 0.5 gm of grated coconut, 2gm of ground jaggery and 2gm of chocolate. Mix all ingredients, make a dough, sheet it and form into a bar shape. Adjustment of ingredients amounts must be done on percentage of ingredients basis to make desired volume. Financial Support: No specific financial support was available except that the home institute had co-operated in provision of chemicals and facilities to conduct research.
OBTAINING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD SET GELS FROM QUINOA PROTEIN HYDROLYZATES MICAELA. GALANTE1,2*, RICCARDO. DE FLAVIIS1,3, VALERIA. BOERIS1,2, DARÍO. SPELZINI1,2. 1Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas-Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina; 2Facultad de Química e Ingeniería-Pontifica Universidad Católica Argentina, Rosario, Argentina; 3Facoltà di Bioscienze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari e Ambientali- Universita’ Degli Studi Di Teramo, Teramo, Italy. *[email protected]
The demand for alternative protein sources is increasing with the rapidly rising of world population and the changes in food habits due to consumers’ concerns about their health. Gel-forming ability is one of the most important functional properties of protein as a food ingredient and enzymatic hydrolysis is frequently used as strategy to improve the functional and nutritional properties of plant proteins. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a grain-like food crop traditional from Latin America that mainly grown in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia although in the last years it is attracting attention worldwide as a functional food ingredient. Because of its nutritional and biological properties, quinoa has been defined as ‘one of the grains of the 21st century’. Moreover, quinoa has been found to contain numerous bioactive compounds such as antioxidant, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gelforming ability of quinoa protein hydrolyzates, and their antioxidant properties. In order to fulfill this propose, at first instance were obtained the enzymatic pool from a culture of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3, and then this enzymatic pool was used for the hydrolysis of quinoa protein isolates (QPI). Acid-induced gels were obtained from QPI before and after enzymatic hydrolysis by addition of glucono delta-lactone. The hydrolysis degree and peptide profile of QPI was studied during hydrolysis. These gels were further tested for their water holding capacity (WHC), color and microstructural properties (by confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques) as well as for their in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method). The degree of hydrolysis of the QPI increased as was expected when increased the hydrolysis time, reaching 30% at 3 h of incubation with the enzymatic extract. When the antioxidant activity was tested by the ABTS assay, QPI gels exhibited higher radical scavenging ability than non-hydrolyzed QPI gels. In addition, the ABTS antioxidant assay showed that there was an increment of the antioxidant capacity of QPI with the degree of hydrolysis (p<0.001). The results of color analysis showed that non-hydrolyzed QPI gels have higher L* value and lower a* and b* values than QPI gels (p<0.05) and thus they were significantly brighter, less reddish and yellowish than the QPI gels. The L* decreases and b* values increase when the hydrolysis time of the QPI increases, while the a* value is not significantly different among the hydrolysis time assayed. The total color difference increases while increases the hydrolysis degree of the QPI gels. According to the confocal laser scanning microscopy images obtained when the hydrolysis time increases there is a transition of the gels from a homogeneous protein network distribution to a heterogeneous one. In addition, when hydrolysis time of QPI increases an increase in the average pore size value is obtained for the gel samples as a consequence of the microstructure change. The % WHC of QPI gels decrease with the hydrolysis degree, since the microstructural changes of the gels affect the water retention (p<0.001). In conclusion, the changes occurring during the enzymatic hydrolysis affect the gelforming ability of the QPI and the final characteristics of gels. This suggests that QPI hydrolyzates may be versatile ingredients for novel plant protein products. Financial Support: Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Universidad Nacional de Rosario (UNR). Pontifica Universidad Católica Argentina (UCA). Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (FONCyT).
OHMIC AND CONVENTIONAL HEATING OF NATURAL LITCHI JUICE: STUDY OF HEATING BEHAVIOUR AND CHANGES IN VARIOS QUALITY PARAMETERS HILAL A. MAKROO*1,2, CHUAN Y. WU2, NAVIN K. RASTOGI3, BRIJESH SRIVASTAVA1. 1Dept. of Food Engineering & Technology, Tezpur University, Tezpur, India; 2Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK; 3Dept. of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore, India. *[email protected]
Introduction: According to Joules second law of heating, when an electric current is allowed to flow through an electrically conductive material, because of the resistance to the flow of electric current a significant amount of heat is generated within the material, it is also known as ohmic heating (OH). Ohmic heating can heat food materials quickly, volumetrically and uniformly, hence it has emerged as a novel method to replace the conventional method for thermal processing of food. Objectives: During the conventional thermal processing the high temperature and the long heating time required in ultra-high temperature (UHT) and pasteurization respectively often lead to several quality losses in litchi juice. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the ohmic heating (OH) behaviour of natural litchi juice and to perform a comparative study on
effects of ohmic and conventional hot water (HW) heating on various attributes of the litchi juice. Methodology: Ohmic heating experiments were conducted using a lab scale ohmic heating system. In this system circular platinized titanium electrodes of 1.5 mm thick and 26 mm diameter and the commercial electricity supply of 240V/50Hz (controlled by a variac transformer) was used for OH. Fresh natural litchi juice was heated to 85°C and held for 10 min during the OH (at voltage gradient of 10, 20, 30 and 40 V/cm) and HW heating followed by immediate cooling to 15°C. The heating behaviour and electrical conductivity was studied during the heating experiment. Furthermore the samples were evaluated for various attributes including physicochemical properties (pH, TSS, Titratable acidity, Colour) and nutritional quality (Vitamin C and Phenolic content). Results and Discussion: During the OH the temperature was increased linearly (R2=0.99) at a rate of 0.019, 0.539, 1.534 and 2.485°C sec-1. Therefore, the target temperature of 85°C was achieved in 44.65, 1.68, 0.65 and 0.43 min at 10, 20, 30 and 40 V/cm respectively. The electrical conductivity changed from 0.07 to 0.21 S/m during the heating from 30-85°C. The colour parameters, ‘L’ (lightness-darkness) and ‘a’ (green-red) values were found to increase and decrease, respectively, with the increasing voltage gradient, but the value of ‘b’ (blue-yellow) slightly increased at 10 V/cm whereas it remained comparatively unchanged at higher voltage gradients (20-40 V/cm). No significant (p<0.01) change was caused by any of the heating method to the pH and titratable acidity. However significant changes in the total phenols of the juice were observed during both HW and OH, in a similar manner. The vitamin C content was slightly decreased by both OH and HW heat treatments, OH at 40 V/cm was found to cause minimum change in the vitamin C content, compared to other treatments. Hence it could be concluded that OH has a great potential to be developed as a processing technique for the shelf life enhancement of natural litchi juice. Key words: ohmic heating, conventional, litchi Juice, thermal, total phenols Financial Support: The project was partially funded by Ministry of Minority Affairs, Govt. of India, under the scheme of Mulana Azad National Fellowship scheme, Grant no. F1-17.1/2013-14/MANF-2013-14-MUS-JAM-24351.
OHMIC HEATING AFFECTING LACTOFERRIN PRODUCTION OF COLD, GEL-LIKE EMULSIONS
GUILHERME F. FURTADO1*, RICARDO N.C. PEREIRA2, ANTÓNIO A. VICENTE2, ROSIANE L. CUNHA1. 1University of Campinas, Campinas , Brazil; 2University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Proteins when heated tend to unfold and aggregate. Ohmic heating is a technique that has gained increasing attention because of its uniform heating, and claimed influence on the functional and technological properties of protein dispersions once heated through this technology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of ohmic heating on physical and structural properties of lactoferrin dispersion, as well as to evaluate the properties of the cold, gel-like emulsions made thereof, comparing them with those obtained by conventional heating. The results showed that the heat treatment, for both treatments, resulted in aggregation of lactoferrin. However, the ohmic heating led to less aggregated molecules when compared to conventional heating. This aggregation behavior was confirmed by the increase in size, turbidity and fluorescence values and decrease of dichroic signal after heat treatment. Cold, gel-like emulsions production was related to the good emulsifying capacity of lactoferrin, combined with the emulsification method and the heat pre-treatment applied to the protein. Rheological (viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli) and microstructural (droplets/protein network) properties were intrinsically related to the heat treatment of the protein - ohmic heating produced gel-like emulsions with a less rigid structure. These emulsions could be interesting for food applications containing heat-sensitive ingredients. Financial Support: Authors would like to thank National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the PhD fellowship (140271/2014-7) and for the research grant (305477/2012-9 and 479459/2012-6). This study was also supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2013 unit and COMPETE 2020 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER006684) and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte. Ricardo N. Pereira gratefully acknowledge to FCT the financial grant with reference SFRH/BPD/81887/2011.
OLEOGELS FROM HIGH INTERNAL PHASE EMULSION TEMPLATES STABILIZED BY SODIUM CASEINATE-ALGINATE COMPLEXES WAHYU WIJAYA1*, PAUL VAN DER MEEREN1, ASHOK R. PATEL2. 1Ghent University, Particle and Interfacial Technology Group, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; 2International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Avenida Mestre José Veiga s/n 4715-330 Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
It has been demonstrated in the past that emulsion-templating methods are a very fascinating way of obtaining edible oleogels using food biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides. Generally, this approach uses a rather high volume fraction of
water to obtain stable emulsions (φwater ≈ 0.4) and in order to evaporate such large proportion of water, a drying process at elevated temperature is usually employed which negatively affects the quality of oleogels because of the oxidation of liquid oil. In this work, the objective was to overcome the processing drawbacks associated with the conventional emulsion-templated approach to make it industrially more feasible. Here we demonstrate for the first time, the use of O/W emulsions with high oil fraction (φ = 0.82) as templates to obtain oleogels containing more than 97%wt of liquid oil. The approach involves formation of stable high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) through adsorption of the preformed complexes of biopolymers at oil-water interfaces followed by a complete removal of water by drying at low temperature. The process was optimized by studying the effect of the varying proportion of biopolymers (Na caseinate and alginate) and the pH on complex formation, stability of HIPEs and microstructure of obtained oleogels. The characterization of the colloidal aspects of the preformed complexes revealed that factors such as pH and CAS: ALG concentrations, strongly affected the stability, size and macroscopic the appearance of nanoscale complexes. HIPEs were characterized by light scattering, microstructure and stability studies to understand the effect of pH on stabilization of oil-water interfaces by the preformed complexes. Advanced microscopy studies done on HIPEs and oleogels showed that the interface of the oil droplets was covered by layer of biopolymer complexes and the droplets were structured with a network of uncomplexed protein. Microstructure and bulk property links were further probed through rheological studies. We believe such label-friendly novel colloidal systems with interesting textures could find promising applications as saturated fat replacers in lipid-based food formulations. Keywords: protein-polysaccharide complexes, HIPE, oleogels, microstructure, rheology Financial Support: BOF (Special Research Fund) of Ghent University
PASTE PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED MIXED FLOURS OF SORGHUM, ORANGE FIBER AND WHEY POWDER FOR PRODUCTION OF GLUTEN FREE CAKE FLOUR CAROLINE A. CAYRES1*, EVELINE L. ALMEIDA1, JOSÉ L. R. ASCHERI2, MARIA A. P. G. COUTO1. 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Embrapa Food Technology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *[email protected]
A growing number of consumers, including those with celiac disease, have been increasingly looking for healthy, innovative, convenient, reliable and tasty foods. In this work, we developed a gluten-free cake flour, which contains fibers and proteins of high biological value comprised of sorghum flour, whey powder and orange pomace powder. Sorghum flour is gluten free and has starch and proteins in its composition, which can collaborate in the structure of a cake . Whey contains proteins of high biological value that enable the development of innovative and nutritious products. The addition of fiber-rich compounds in formulations of food products is pertinent, due the fact that approximately ¾ of the brazilian population does not have the necessary daily intake of dietary fiber. The main goal of this work is to investigate variations of the sorghum flour quantities on a gluten free and pregelatinized flour suitable for the production of cakes with better nutritional profile, enriched with proteins and orange fibers, as well as evaluating parameters of the thermoplastic extrusion process. The experiments were carried out according to a 23 central composite rotational design, varying the amount of sorghum flour (S, 71.6-88.4% flour mixture), the conditioning moisture (U, 12.6-19.4%) of the mixed flour and the temperature in the third zone of the extruder (T, 106.4173.6°C), as independent variables. The amount of whey powder in the formulations was fixed (5%) and the difference to 100% supplemented with orange fiber. A Rapid Visco Analyser was used to measure the apparent viscosity of samples as function of temperature. The dependent variables were maximum viscosity peak at 25°C (MVP), peak viscosity (PV) and setback (SB), which are the paste parameters that have the greatest influence on the cake batter and on the final product. The results were analyzed by Response Surface Methodology and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with a 5% level of significance. The independent variable U was the only that presented a significant effect on the three parameters evaluated. In the case of MVP, which indicates whether the starch granules are susceptible to cold hydration, model could not be established as a function of S, U and T studied. Nevertheless, the effect analysis showed that the decrease in U increased MVP, a desirable occurrence in the cake mixing step. Mathematical models with coded values for the independent variables for PV (PV = 214.7 + 26.9 U – 20.0 U2 + 16.0 U T; r2 = 0.7798; Fcal/Ftab = 4.50) and SB (SB = 211.7 + 56.3 U; r2 = 0.8276; Fcal/Ftab = 15.86) as a function of U were found, and for PV, T showed interaction effects. PV indicates the ability of the sample to bind to water and also the maximum swelling of the starch granules during baking. Values of U greater than 18% and T greater than 170°C provide higher PV values, a desirable occurrence for the formation of cake crumb structure during the baking step. SB is related to the development of cake crumb firmness during the shelf life. Lower values of U also generate lower values of SB, a desirable occurrence to minimize the retrograde tendency on the final product. Thus, 3 pregelatinized mixed flours with higher MVP and
PV values and lower SB values can be formulated, bearing in mind the intervals studied for the independent variables, for use in cake formulations. Financial Support: Capes (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel): 1 doctorate scholarship; and CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development): 1 grant of productivity in research.
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CELL WALL RUPTURE METHODS FOR BREWER'S SPENT YEAST GABRIELA V. MARSON1*, MARIANA T.C. MACHADO2, MIRIAM D. HUBINGER1. 1UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2UFRRJ, Seropédica, Brazil. *[email protected]
The brewer’s spent yeast is the second most important brewing industry by-product. It is rich in proteins (43%, d.b.), whose main aminoacids are leucine, lysine (both essential) and tyrosine, complex B vitamins and minerals. Despite the high nutrients content, it is often used as animal feed. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to make the residual yeast proteins available for further protein hydrolysis by rupturing the cell wall to release the intracellular compounds. Three methods were studied: autolysis, mechanical rupture with glass beads and hydrolysis with Brauzyn®100L. The autolysis at pH 6 was induced by temperature (50 °C) for 24 h under stirring of 800 rpm. Inactivation took place at 80 °C for 30 min and the suspension was immediately cooled (ice bath). Glass beads of different sizes (2.64, 2.96 and 3.86 mm in diameter) in the ratio of 1: 2 (beads: suspension) were used in the mechanical rupture test, carried out at 4 °C with 10 intermittent high speed vortex homogenizations of 1min. Control experiments followed the same procedure without containing glass beads. The cell wall enzymatic hydrolysis with the Brauzyn® enzyme followed a fractional factorial design, for 4 factors and 3 central points, summing up 11 experiments. The factors studied were pH (5.5 to 7.5), substrate concentration (50 to 100% in water dilutions), enzyme: substrate ratio on the basis of protein content (0.5 to 10%) and hydrolysis temperature (60 to 80 °C). The hydrolysis time was defined through the hydrolysis curves analysis as 40 minutes. Inactivation of the enzyme was done at 90 °C for 30 min and then the suspension was immediately cooled (ice bath). For each hydrolysis experiment it was done a control with the same conditions of the experiment, but the enzyme was not added. The mixture obtained from each method was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 30 min at 4°C. The protein recovery, total solids, soluble solids, antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and soluble proteins were evaluated for all samples. All results underwent analysis of variance and Tukey test, considering differences with p <0.05. Autolysates showed an increase of 17.1% in the soluble solids content and a decrease in antioxidant capacity of 28.4% comparing to the untreated residual yeast. Treatment with 2.64 mm diameter glass beads caused an increase of 3.5% and 5.0% of soluble solids comparing to the control experiments and untreated residual yeast, respectively. The simple agitation of the controls may have contributed to the slight increase in soluble solids (1.4%). No significant changes were found for the autolysates and mechanical rupture experiments regarding their protein recovery, antioxidant capacity, total solids and soluble proteins. The experimental design showed that all factors were significant and in average 98.1% of the variances were explained by the method. The results showed that best condition for the hydrolysis with Brauzyn® should be the experiment with the highest substrate concentration (no dilution) and enzyme: substrate ratio (10%), lowest temperature (60 °C) and pH value (5.5). When compared to the untreated matrix, this hydrolysis experiment showed an increase of 49% in protein recovery, 32.7% of supernatant total solids, 25.3% of soluble solids, 23.3% of soluble proteins and 55.3% of antioxidant capacity. The hydrolysis with Brauzyn was able to release the intracellular compounds in the brewer’s spent yeast turning it into a material that can be a potential source of bioactive peptides. Financial Support: FAPESP 2016/18465-8, FAEPEX Solicitação nº 2422/16 do convênio nº 519.292.
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALGINATE-BASED MANNURONIC/ GULURONIC RATIO EFFECT
MARIA J. COSTA1,ARLETE M. MARQUES1, SANNA SILLANKORVA1, JOSÉ A. TEIXEIRA1, MIGUEL A. CERQUEIRA2. 1Centre of Biological Engineering, Braga, Portugal; 2International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Films can be produced by different edible materials such as: polysaccharides, protein, and lipids, with the possible addition of plasticizers and/or surfactants. Their performance is directly related with the material composition and the environmental conditions. Alginate films have been extensively studied, nevertheless their use in the production of edible films ask for the fully understanding of the effect of their main characteristics on the film’s final properties. This work aims to characterize alginatebased films (10 g/L), with different ratios of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids and cross linking with different
concentrations of CaCl2 (0 to 15 g/L). Two commercial alginates, the CR 8223 (M/G ratio of 65/35 and a molecular weight of 300 kDa) and Manugel (M/G ratio of 30/70 and a molecular weight <200 kDa), were used. Mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation-at-break), opacity, water sensitivity (moisture content, solubility, isothermic adsorption and contact angle) were evaluated for each type of alginate-based films. Chemical interactions were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the possible changes in chemical structures of the different alginate-based films. Results showed that the crosslinking has a significant effect on alginate structure and properties, decreasing moisture content of films from 41.40 % and 37.29 %, in non cross-linked films, to 20.73 % and 21.78 % in films crosslinked with 1.5 % of CaCl2 for CR 8223 and Manugel, respectively. Another observed effect was in mechanical properties, where the crosslinking increased the films tensile strength, from 9.28 to 38.74 MPa for CR 8223 alginate and from 3.72 to 26.43 MPa for Manugel alginate. The crosslinking also allows a decrease of the films solubility and an increase of their swelling index. Results showed that the M/G ratio and molecular weight highly influenced the main properties of the films where the higher amount of mannuronic acid in relation to the guluronic acid leads to stronger and less soluble films. In conclusion, results showed that the use of alginates with different M/G ratio and their crosslinking with CaCl2 can be used to produce films with different properties and thus several applications can be foreseeing. Financial Support: Maria José Costa is recipient of a fellowship supported by a doctoral program (SFRH/BD/122897/2016) funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, POPH-QREN and FSE Portugal).
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOYBEAN OIL ORGANOGELS KAMILA R. R. GODOI1*, ANA P. B. RIBEIRO¹. 1University of Campinas, School of Food Engineering, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
The high consumption of trans and saturated fatty acids has a direct impact on human health, causing an increase in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), favoring atherosclerosis and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Due to negative effects, several actions were directed by Health Regulatory Agencies and Nutritional Guidelines, in order to recommend a reduction in the consumption of fat by the world population. For the replacement of this fat in processed foods, the development of organogels has been extensively studied. The components are viscoelastic materials are composed of a liquid phase and are characterized by semisolid systems, where an oil phase is immobilized by a self -sustaining threedimensional network formed by the structuring agent, changing the physical characteristics of vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to develop soybean oil using different types of structuring agents: fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO), candelilla wax (CX), and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The organogels are produced according to the simplex centroid experimental design for ternary mixtures, being verified as interactions between the structurants used in different concentrations. The obtained organogels were characterized according to the properties of visual stability, hardness (compression/extrusion), solid fat content (SFC) and rheological analysis. The visual stability indicated that the system added of isolated SMS did not form an organogel, while those added CW became firm and stable organogel. The SFC of the systems added mostly of FHPO showed higher solids at the temperatures evaluated (8.1% solids maximum to the sample added of FHSO isolated; 6.9% with FHSO + CW). At the temperature of the 25 ° C, however, the use of FHSO showed compression / extrusion (88gF) compared to the isolated CW system, which shows higher resistance (1064gF). The rheological analysis showed that all the samples were considered pseudoplastic with residual stress, at exception of the SMS isolated which was classified as a Newtonian fluid. The organogelators evaluated showed effective interactions with the addition of isolated CW, CW + FHSO and the ternary interaction with higher proportion of CW resulted in more stable organogels. Financial Support: CNPQ, Process number: 131269/2015-1.
PINEAPPLE CO-PRODUCTS AS A SOURCE OF ADDED VALUE COMPOUNDS SOFIA C. LOURENÇO*, CLÁUDIA M. S. GARCIA, MARGARIDA M. MARTINS, VÍTOR D. ALVES. LEAF – Linking, Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, Portugal. *[email protected]
The food industries face with a major problem regarding to agro-food co-products that derive from fruit processing, such as peels, cores, seeds, leaves and others. Many of those by-products can have a potential value-added due to its high phenolic compounds content that are able to inhibit oxidation processes in food products, possessing as well important health properties. However, those compounds to which bioactivity is referred, are unstable when subjected to industrial processing and to conditions of transport and storage. For that reason, the present study is focused on the incorporation of the antioxidant rich extract of pineapple peel within a biopolymer matrix that enables their protection against harsh environmental conditions,
which would improve food products shelf life during storage and the bioactives bioavailability after consumption. The optimal conditions of pineapple peel aqueous extraction were stablished by using a central composite experimental design with two independent variables (time and raw material-water ratio). To protect the extract, maltodextrin was chosen as wall material for encapsulation using spray drying as stabilization method. In order to find the best conditions to produce microparticles, a factorial design with two independent variables (maltodextrin concentration and inlet air temperature) was applied. The particles were characterized in terms moisture content, morphology, size distribution (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and antioxidant activity (FRAP methodology). Chosen particles were used to study their stability, in simulated extreme conditions (24 h illuminated cabinet at 40 °C and ambient temperature and light conditions), by measuring their antioxidant activity over time, during 20 days. The results have shown skin forming microparticles, with a diameter ranging from 0.9 μm to 22.7 μm approximately, with no substantial differences between the different operating conditions applied. Regarding to the antioxidant activity, a decrease in the antioxidant capacity of the encapsulated bioactives was observed when compared to the initial extract, which may be due to changes in the phenolic profile during the process. However, from the stability tests over 20 days, the encapsulated bioactives revealed to be protected compared to the pineapple peel extract that was not encapsulated at room temperature and T = 40 °C. This study highlights the potential that exists on the valorization of pineapple by-products by recovering added value natural antioxidants, which may be successfully stabilized in maltodextrin microcapsules, before being incorporated in selected food formulations. Financial Support: The first author acknowledges the financial support from Caixa Geral de Depósitos (CGD) and Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Portugal, through Doctoral fellowship.
POTATO BY-PRODUCTS AS A MATERIAL EXTRACTION AND ENCAPSUALTION
IGOR SEPELEVS1,2*, GEORGE A ANNOR2, GARY A. REINECCIUS2*. 1Latvia University of Agriculture, Department of Food Technology, Jelgava, Latvia; 2University of Minnesota, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Minneapolis, USA. *[email protected]
Roughly, one third of the food produced in the world for human consumption yearly gets lost or wasted with potato as a dominating vegetable-tuber in medium- and high-income countries. With farmers preferring specialized animal feed, biogas production stands for universal potato processing by-product recycling approach that eventually results in losses of biologically valuable compounds (BVC), mostly phenols, that could be extracted and applied in food industry. As potato steam peeling machinery is mostly used for processing of large potato amounts, objective of present study is to evaluate potato by-products form stem peeling lines as potential source material for BVC extraction and wall material production for encapsulation (protection) of BVC during storage. Different modified starches are used in food industry for encapsulation purposes. As preliminary data showed that potato starch is partially hydrolyzed during steam peeling process, BVC and starch are extracted in one simultaneous process to produce BVC-starch mixture that further had been used for encapsulated BVC production. (Currently, on May 14, 2017, study is in process) First results showed that it is possible to use potato by-products form steam peeling potato processing lines for encapsulated BVC production, as it is possible to extract sufficient starch amounts during phenol extraction process. Financial Support: no grant involved.
POTATO STARCH MODIFICATION BY OZONE OXIDATION: CHANGES IN ITS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES. NANCI CASTANHA1, MANOEL D. MATTA JR1, PEDRO E. D. AUGUSTO1*. 1University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, Brazil. *[email protected]
Starch is a food additive that has several desirable characteristics: it is obtained from naturally abundant and renewable sources, as well as being a low-cost ingredient. However, in their native form, the starches do not present some properties of industrial interest, being necessary their modification. Modified starches present new functional properties, becoming more applicable and efficient. Chemically modified starches are widely used in food and non-food industries. However, the use of chemical agents in this process has undesirable consequences, such as excessive costs and generation of residues that can be toxic. In addition, the use of chemicals conflicts with the industrial demand for more efficient and environmentally friendly processes. In this context, the ozone can be a solution, presenting a high oxidizing power, being easily generated and decomposing into oxygen without leaving residues, thus being safe for both consumers and environment. To increase the possibilities of using potato starch in the food industry, considering the environmental and food safety claim, this work aimed to
evaluate different properties of the potato starch obtained by ozone-oxidation, as well as to describe the structural changes. Potato starch in aqueous suspension (10%, w/w) was ozone-oxidized up to 60 min using a gas flow of 0.5 L∙min-1 with ozone concentration of 47 mgO3∙L-1. The starch structure was evaluated in relation to carbonyl and carboxyl groups content, gel permeation chromatography and relative crystallinity (RC). The starch properties were evaluated in relation to its water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), pasting properties and gel texture. The pasting properties was measured at non-standard conditions, considering different process temperatures, with the maximum from 55°C to 70°C. The results showed an increase in the carbonyl and carboxyl groups content with increasing processing time, indicating a high substitution of the hydroxyl groups, and thus a higher molecular oxidation. The GPC indicated that both amylose and amylopectin molecules were hydrolyzed by the ozone, presenting lower molecular sizes. The RC analysis proved that the crystalline region of the starch granules was not affected by the oxidation. Regarding the pasting properties, with a temperature up to 60°C, none of the samples presented any apparent viscosity variation, indicating that the water absorption was not sufficient to cause a granular swelling. However, at 65°C the samples began to present an increase on the apparent viscosity, and at 70°C, except for the native starch, all the samples were almost completely gelatinized, presenting a higher apparent viscosity. The WSI results indicates that, with increasing ozonation time and temperature, the soluble fraction of the starch also increased. The WAI showed that, in general, the starch retains more water if processed with higher temperatures, but with lower ozonation times, indicating that the ozonation impairs in some extend the water absorption index of the starch. The gel texture was consistent with the pasting properties, and only the 15 and 30-minute oxidized samples heated at 65°C and 70°C showed some measurable resistance in the equipment. In conclusion, the ozonized potato starch exhibited very promising technological results, highlighting the possibility of using ozone to desirably modify the potato starch properties. Financial Support: The authors are grateful to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil) for funding project n° 401004/2014-7 and to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, Brazil) for the N. Castanha MSc and PhD scholarships.
PREBIOTIC EFFECT OF ORANGE JUICE ON GUT MICROBIOME MODEL 1
ANA LUIZA R. F. DUQUE , MAGALI MONTEIRO , MARIA ANGELA T. ADORNO , ISABEL K. SAKAMOTO , KATIA SIVIERI . São Paulo State 2 University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, Brazil; University of São Paulo (USP), School of Engineering of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil. *[email protected]
The gut microbiota has a direct impact on host's health being strongly influenced by diet. Orange juice consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, largely because of the presence of bioactive compounds. The bioactive compounds present in orange juice, particularly polyphenols, may also be associated with the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of fresh orange juice (FOJ) and pasteurized orange juice ® (POJ) on gut microbiota using gut microbiome model (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem -SHIME ) in a ® long-term experiment. SHIME vessels were used to investigate orange juice fermentation throughout the colon and to assess changes in microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short-chain fatty acids – SCFA, and ammonium). Antioxidant ® activity of the SHIME vessels and juice was also evaluated. The FOJ increased (p≤0.05) Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium spp. and reduced (p≤0.05) enterobacteria. The POJ increased (p≤0.05) Lactobacillus spp. and reduced (p≤0.05) enterobacteria. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed a reduction in total bacteria population richness values. The FOJ and POJ increased (p≤0.05) butyric, acetic and propionic acid concentrations whereas the ammonium production was reduced (p≤0.05). High values of antioxidant activity were observed as a result of the FOJ and POJ treatments. Principal component analysis indicated that both POJ and FOJ juices had a positive influence on gut microbiota. The long-term ® experiment in the SHIME showed that both the fresh and pasteurized orange juice treatments changed the composition of the microbial community by increasing Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations and reducing the enterobacteria population. On the other hand, the PCR-DGGE analysis indicated a reduction in total bacteria population richness values, though not necessarily with a negative impact on gut microbiota. Increases in SCFA production and antioxidant activity were observed, as well as decreases in ammonium levels. These results indicate that orange juice has a selective and prebiotic effect on gut ® microbiota. This exploratory study on the influence of orange juice over gut microbiota using SHIME model should be deepen. Further studies should be performed to better understand the effects of interactions among the bioactive compounds from orange juice and their metabolites on human gut microbiota. Financial Support: CAPES
PRODUCTION OF LIPID MICROPARTICLES BY CO-EXTRUSION: PROBIOTIC SURVIVAL IN SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL FLUIDS
MARLUCI P. SILVA1,2*, CARMEN S. FÁVARO-TRINDADE2, DENIS PONCELET1. 1Oniris, Nantes, France; 2FZEA/USP, Pirassununga, Brazil. *[email protected]
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that confer beneficial effects and improve the health of consumers when administrated in adequate amounts (FAO, 2002). However, they are very susceptible to deleterious conditions, which limit their application in some foods. Thus, some encapsulation technologies have been explored aiming to protect probiotics and to control their release into the gastrointestinal tract (Fávaro-Trindade, Heinemann, & Pedroso 2011). Among encapsulation technologies, co-extrusion may protect probiotics keep them into the core and covering by polymers. This study aimed to evaluate co-extrusion for the encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA3 using alginate or a blend of alginate-shellac as wall material and coconut fat as core. The microparticles were dried and stored for up to 60 days at 25 °C for stability studies, and the survival of encapsulated probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal fluids was also evaluated. The viability of LA3 encapsulated by co-extrusion using alginate or a blend of alginate-shellac was, respectively, 7.0 and 7.5 log CFU/g, after 60 days of storage. Regarding the simulated gastrointestinal assay, the probiotics loaded into alginate and alginate-shellac microparticles, respectively, presented a decrease of approximately 1.5 log CFU/g and 0.5 log CFU/g. However, both microparticles presented a probiotic population higher than 6 log CFU/g. Therefore, microparticles produced with the blend of alginate-shellac presented additional protection to the probiotics due to the resinous characteristic of shellac. Taken together, these data provide a promising alternative for the incorporation of the probiotic L. acidophilus LA3 in new functional foods. Financial Support: FAPESP (#2014/10754-5, #2015/15300-5) and universal CNPq 462493/2014-8.
PRODUCTION OF NATURAL NANO-GEL FROM PINEAPPLE POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEXES FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS DÉBORA A. CAMPOS1*, LORENZO M. PASTRANA-CASTRO2, JOSÉ A. TEIXEIRA3, MARIA M. PINTADO1. 1CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Químico Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/ Porto, Portugal; 2INL International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, Portugal. 3Centro de Engenharia Biológica, Universidade do Minho, Campus Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal. *[email protected]
Pineapple (Ananas cosmosus) is the third most important tropical fruit in world production, seventy percent of the pineapple produced in the world is consumed as fresh fruit. In the agro-food sector, several materials are eliminated as waste throughout production and processing chain. These residues (skins, seed and pulp remnants) contain high content of bioactive compounds, but in generally not directly available, and for that reason is necessary to extract and characterize the feasible bioactive compounds (do Espírito Santo et al., 2012). Therefore, the study of the wastes and by-products generated during pineapple production and post-harvest processing is relevant and interesting to valorise them and reduce their environmental impact. The development of vehicles using these residues that deliveries the compounds as well promotes the maintenance of bioactivity, has been widely study, but lacks the search of new structures that could be easily used in food industry. Therefore, the focus of this research work was to developed nanocarriers using pineapple residues to extract pineapple polysaccharides for delivery of bioactive compounds. Frozen pineapple wastes were submitted to a milling and pressing processes, creating a pineapple juice and a solid semi-dried extract. Characterization was made for both parts comprised proteins, sugars, fibers, lipids and polyphenol contents. The soluble fraction was fractionated by centrifuge filter tubes with cut-off of 50 kDa and after by cut-off of 3 kDa, and three fractions were obtained: above 50 kDa, between 50 and 3 kDa and below 3 kDa. The insoluble part was submitted to hot aqueous extraction. The supernatant and the pellet of this extraction were separated and studied separately. Pineapple polysaccharides were identified and quantified by HPLC method and phenol-sulphuric method, respectively. The identified polysaccharides, were for production of a natural nano-gel that could be used as matrix of delivery. Studies on optimized process for gel formation were made. Several actions that influence the interaction polysaccharide-polysaccharide were evaluated, such as, ratio mixture between pineapple polysaccharides/xanthan gum, pH, ionic strength of solution, temperature and molecular weight of polysaccharides. Thus, was design single experiments to evaluate primary an optimum range of each influent action, for production of the most stable nano-gel. The soluble fraction with MW between 50 and 3 kDa were constituted mainly by soluble proteins (proteases), such as bromelain, ananain and comosain. The fraction with MW <3 kDa was studied for soluble small polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. To evaluate the molecular sizes of polysaccharides it was used an ultra-hydrogel column, the results showed that the both studied fractions contained two major peaks of
polysaccharides, comprising MW of 2000 and 600 Da. Also, when using an Aminex® column for simple sugars analysis, the fractions presented high concentration of two monosaccharides glucose and fructose, as expected. The polysaccharides of higher MW were identified as been galactomannan, as described elsewhere (Salunkhe & Kadam, 1995). These polysaccharides were extracted from each fraction and used to complex with xanthan gum to produce an active nano-gel. Through the studies on the best features was possible to understand the best ranges for development a higher experimental superficial design for promotion of synergetic polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction. Through this research work was possible to evaluate and characterize the polysaccharides present in pineapple residues and apply them to a complex formation with other natural polysaccharides to produce a nano-gel for delivery of bioactive compounds. Financial Support: Financial support is provided by FCT through scholarship: SFRH/BD/104074/2014.
PROSOPIS ALBA FLOUR AS A NOVEL FOOD MATRIX TO VITAMIN B12 PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI CRL1098 ANA M. ÁVILA*, ANDREA C. TORRES, MARIA I. TORINO, MARIA P. TARANTO. Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA)-CONICET, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. *[email protected]
Prosopis (P) alba (algarrobo) is a native tree from the northwestern region of Argentina. The pod of this plant, containing a sweet edible pulp, is used to produce flour and others food products due to their nutritional, functional and biological properties, but in spite of its characteristics this products are marketed as handicrafts with low incidence in the regional economy. P. Alba flour presents high concentration of carbohydrates, principally sucrose which make this flour a good substrate for the development of beneficial bacteria. Lactobacillus (L) reuteri CRL1098 is a Gram-positive, facultative heterofermentative species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from sourdough. It has been demonstrated that the CRL1098 strain has the ability to produce vitamin B12, one of the most complex no polymeric macromolecule that humans are not able to produce but they need in vital enzymatic reactions. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of P. alba flour as a novel substrate for vitamin B12 production by L. reuteri CRL1098 in order to further develop and optimize a technological process that will be scaled-up. Culture media were prepared employing both commercial and not commercial P. alba flour (10 % w/v), sterilized and inoculated with an initial cell density of 106 CFU/ml of CRL1098 strain previously activated in MRS broth (37ºC, 16 h). Fermentation experiments were carried out in batch systems without agitation using 250 ml flasks containing 100 ml of the P. alba medium. Samples were aseptically withdraw immediately at time 0 and every 2 h up to 24 h to determine the cell viability (CFU/ml) and pH in order to obtain a growth curve and define the kinetic parameters. A bioassay using Salmonella Typhimurium AR2680 (a mutant strain unable to grow in the absence of vitamin B12) as indicator was conducted after 16 h of fermentation to prove the presence of vitamin B12 in the fermented matrix. Experiments were performed in duplicate using MRS broth as a control medium. L. reuteri CRL1098 grew in P. alba medium reaching 108 CFU/mL when using both kind of flours and after 16 h of fermentation this strain was able to produce compounds with vitamin B12 activity as it was confirmed by the presence of growing halos of mutant AR2680 in the presence of the fermented matrix. These results demonstrated that the strain was able to grow and produce vitamin B12 on the proposed matrix, therefore the Prosopis alba medium is suitable with high potential for the design of fermented food bio-enriched with vitamin B12 using the cobalamin producer strain Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098. Financial Support: PICT (2015-1705). Aditivos funcionales para snacks saludables: innovación tecnológica a base de cultivos lácticos y frutos autóctonos regionales. - PIP (2014-530). Desarrollo de un cultivo bioprotector destinado a mitigar Escherichia coli enterohemorrágica en carne y productos cárnicos. - PICT (2011-0175). CERELOMICS: Análisis de las propiedades funcionales y del mecanismo de acción de bacterias lácticas probióticas y de grado alimentario autóctonas, a través de la genómica.
PROTEOLYSIS OF PRATO CHEESE PRODUCED WITH ADJUNCT CULTURE Lactobacillus helveticus. DÉBORA P. BAPTISTA1*, BRUNO D. GALLI1, FLÁVIA G. CAVALHEIRO1, MIRNA L. GIGANTE1. 1University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
The food industry has responded to the growing consumers’ demand for functional foods with the development of products with different health claims. The addition of Lactobacillus helveticus as an adjunct culture in cheesemaking has been explored due to its proteolytic system, which can contribute to flavor development in ripened cheeses through the hydrolysis of bitter peptides. In addition, it can favor the production of a functional cheese through the release of bioactive peptides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of the adjunct culture Lactobacillus helveticus LH-B02 on the proteolysis of
Prato cheese during 60 days of ripening. Cheeses were made with “O” type starter culture (Control cheese) and “O” type starter culture with addition of Lactobacillus helveticus. Cheeses were characterized for chemical composition, and the hydrolysis profile of the caseins during ripening was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis after 1, 15, 30, and 60 days of storage (12⁰C). For peak identification, α-CN, -CN and κ-CN standards were used. The effect of treatments (2 levels of variation) and ripening period (4 levels of variation), as well as the interaction between these factors on the integrated areas of the αs1-casein, βcasein, and para-κ-casein fractions were evaluated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and means were compared by Tukey’s test at a significance level of 5%. During 60 days of storage, significant hydrolysis of the fractions of αs1-casein (p = 0.0037), β-casein (p = 0.0135) and para-κ-casein (p < 0.0001) were observed. The fraction αs1-casein showed fast degradation with significant reduction of peaks areas after 15 days of ripening. The fractions para-κ-casein and β-casein presented slower hydrolysis with significant difference in the peaks areas after 30 and 60 days of ripening, respectively. The cheeses with addition of Lactobacillus helveticus presented significant higher hydrolysis of αs1-casein (p = 0.0065), and the addition of this adjunct culture did not significantly affect the hydrolysis of β-casein and para-κ-casein. After 60 days of ripening, an unidentified peak appeared only in the cheese with addition of Lactobacillus helveticus, possibly due to the greater proteolytic activity of this culture on the casein fractions and the consequent formation of degradation products. Future studies are needed to identify the peptides formed and to evaluate the bioactive potential of the cheeses. PULSE FLOURS ENHANCE THE NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHEAT FLOUR CRACKERS KIM A. MILLAR1,2*, CATHERINE BARRY-RYAN2 ROISIN BURKE2, SINEAD MCCARTHY1, AND EIMEAR GALLAGHER2, 1Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, Ireland; 2Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin , Ireland. *[email protected]
Diet related diseases including obesity and diabetes remain leading causes of death globally. An estimated 2.7m lives could be saved by increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables to at least 400g/day. The aim this research was to utilize plant-based ingredients to enhance the nutritional quality of commonly consumed processed foods. Pulse flours offer nutritional alternatives to wheat flour for the production of baked foods due to their high protein and fibre levels and low glycaemic index. In this study, fava-bean (Vicia faba), yellow-pea and green-pea (Pisum sativum) flours were analyzed for their nutritional composition, physiochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The flours were each blended with wheat flour at 40% in the formulation of chemically-leavened crackers. The effects of pulse flour addition on the physiochemical properties, processability, sensory acceptability, nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of the crackers were observed in comparison to 100% wheat control crackers. Fava-bean flour had the highest protein and total dietary fibre (TDF) content (26g/100g DM and 15g/100g DM respectively). Fava-bean flour also had significantly higher total phenolics and antioxidant activity than the wheat and pea flours (549mg GAE/100g and 56mg AAE/100g respectively).The baked crackers had significantly higher protein content following addition of all pulse flours, ranging from 12-15g/100g DM compared with 9g/100g DM in the wheat control crackers. TDF of the crackers was also significantly increased following addition of pulse flours, ranging from 911g/100g compared with 6g/100g DM in the wheat control crackers. Physical dimensions and texture profile of the crackers were not significantly affected by the addition of pulse flours. Colour attributes, particularly lightness (L*) were significantly affected. However, sensory analysis revealed a preference for the colour and appearance of fava-bean and yellow-pea flour crackers compared to the wheat control crackers due to the richer, darker colour. Overall, the yellow-pea and fava-bean flour crackers were significantly preferred by consumers compared to the wheat-only, demonstrating the potential application of these flours to improve the eating quality and nutritional profile of crackers. Enzyme inhibitors, starch quality and glycemic index studies are continuing. Financial Support: Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme
QUALITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF INNOVATIVE GRAIN LEGUME PRODUCTS ASNATE KIRSE*, LIENE STRAUTA, SANDRA MUIZNIECE-BRASAVA, RUTA GALOBURDA. Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia. *[email protected]
Pulses, also known as grain legumes, are highly nutrition, however, underappreciated mainly because of the long preparation time before consumption. Such innovative products as pulse spreads and extruded legume snacks, which would exclude the lengthy preparation, could increase the consumption of the long-forgotten grain legumes and be an excellent ready-to-eat option for consumers today. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Fradel) and maple peas (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. cv. Bruno) were used to develop new products. Pulse spreads, made from cooked pulses with salt, citric acid, oil, and seasoning,
were filled in PA/PE or PET/ALU/PA/PP flexible film pouches, packaged in vacuum (20 mbar) and hermetically sealed. The quality of sous vide treated (80 °C/15 min) and high pressure processed (700 MPa/10 min/20 °C) spreads was assessed compared to fresh spreads. Extruded snacks were made from milled legume flour, which was combined with water (7, 9 or 11 g 100 g-1) until a homogenous mixture was obtained, and then extruded with a twin-screw extrusion-cooker (50/150/170 °C). The product was dried for 15 minutes in a belt type dryer at 80 °C, followed by coating the snacks with salty or sweet flavour. Physicochemical (nutritional composition, hardness, colour, pH, etc.), microbiological (total plate count, yeasts and moulds, etc.) and sensory (degree of preference by consumers, expert rating, etc.) parameters were determined according to standard methods. For pulse spreads both processing methods significantly decreased (p<0.05) total plate count, in addition, yeasts and moulds, as well as coliforms were not found in any samples. A 1.5 to 1.7 log reduction of microorganisms was observed after processing. Physicochemical parameters were not influenced by chosen processing methods (p>0.1), except for the colour of pulse spreads after sous vide treatment, which reached ΔE* 4 units in transparent packaging and ΔE* 2 units in light proof packaging. Sensory evaluation of pulse spreads showed that processing had an insignificant influence (p>0.05) on such parameters as hedonic score, overall acceptance, mouthfeel, taste and aroma. Pulse spreads contain >7 g protein, <8 g available carbohydrates, <7 g fat, >6 g dietary fibre and around 145 kcal per 100 g; they are eligible for such nutrient claims as ‘high protein’ and ‘high fibre’. With regards to extruded snacks, the results showed that the optimal added water content should be 9%, in order to obtain samples with the highest quality: highest volume mass, lowest density and hardness. Sensory testing defined that snacks with barbecue, fried onion, almond and chocolate coating had the highest potential. Extruded salty snacks contain >21 g protein, <43 g carbohydrates, <6 g fat, >3 g dietary fibre and around 330 kcal per 100 g, whereas sweet snacks contain around 10 g sugar. New legume snacks can be labelled as ‘high protein’ and ‘source of fibre’. Enzymatic in vitro digestibility will be assessed in a dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS). The GITS system is comprised of a single stirred tank reactor, simulating the conditions in the stomach and duodenum, connected to the PC and controlled by bioprocess monitoring and control software ‘Iris 6’. Controlled parameters are temperature, pH, secretion control of HCl in stomach, NaHCO3 and bile in small intestine. Digestion protocol is currently being adapted from Minnekus et al. (2014). The results of enzymatic in vitro digestion of innovative grain legume products will be discussed. Financial Support: This study was supported by the FP7 Research Project n∘ 613781 Eurolegume “Enhancing of legumes growing in Europe through sustainable cropping for protein supply for food and feed”.
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS OF CASSAVA PEEL CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS OBTAINED BY ACID HYDROLYSIS ALINE CZAIKOSKI1; HELOISA TIBOLLA1; TANARA SARTORI1; FLORENCIA C. MENEGALLI1. 1Department of Food Engineering, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. [email protected]
Fibers are define as nano-fibers if diameters are smaller than 100 nm. Due to the high rigidity of the cellulose crystal, cellulose fibers are widely used as reinforcement in composite materials. In addition, they present high aspect ratio (ratio between length and width) and specific surface area (greater than 100 m2/g), favorable characteristics for composite materials. The rheological properties of celulose nanofibers suspensions is of great importance to understand the interaction of nanofibers with other components and to evaluate the possible use in materials and process as coating, thickening and extrusion. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the rheological characteristics of aqueous suspensions with different concentrations of cellulose nanofibers extracted from cassava peel and characterized them by the zeta potential and diameter. The cellulose nanofibers were obtained from an acid hydrolysis with 30% (w / w) sulfuric acid and a sonication treatment (Ultrasonic Disconnector / Sonicator (Ultronique). The surface charge of the nanofibers was analyze with a Zetasizer (Malvern Instruments, Ltda., U.K.). The determination of the diameter, length and the visualization of the structure of nanofibers were made by atomic force microscopy (AFM) NX-10 (PARK Systems, Korea). Mechanical spectra of suspensions of cellulose nanofiber (1.0%, 1.4% and 1.8%) were determined by scanning frequency in the range of 0.1 - 100 rad/ s, at constant strain and temperature of 25 °C using a rheometer Anton Paar Physica MCR 301. The cellulose nanofibers obtained in this study show a zeta potential of - 49.33 mV ± 4.35, average diameter of 5 nm ± 2.1 and a wide distribution of length between from 1500 to 2500 nm. Mechanical spectra of the system showed a gel-like (G’>G’’) behavior in all studied concentrations. As expected, elastic and viscous modules increase with concentration of nanofibers. Higher concentrations of cellulose nanofibers (NFCs) increase the creation of entanglements between them, causing a higher energy storage by system. Furthermore, the surface charges cause repulsion between NFCs, affording good dispersion and, at the same time they contribute to higher immobilization of water molecules (bound water), increasing the gel structure. It was demonstrated that cassava peel can be a raw material for the production of nanofibers of
cellulose. The negative value of the zeta potential results from negative charges that were inserted into surface of NFCs during the acid hydrolysis and the images confirm that the fiber diameter are in nanoscale range. Even in the smallest concentration of cellulose nanofibers, the rheological behavior was gel-like. This showed that these nanomaterials may be used as reinforcing material in nanocomposites. Financial Support: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (131520/2015-6).
SAPONIN RICH PLANT EXTRACTS FROM FOOD BY-PRODUCT STREAMS AS NEW NATURAL EMULSIFIER RALLA, THEO1, SALMINEN, HANNA1, EDELMANN, MATTHIAS2, DAWID, CORINNA2, HOFMANN, THOMAS2, WEISS, JOCHEN1*. 1University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Hohenheim, Germany; 2Technical University Munich, Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Freising, Germany. *[email protected]
Structure and stability of emulsion-based foods and beverages are largely influenced by the type of emulsifier. Lately, food manufacturers have experienced a trend towards ‘natural’ products as consumers expect more products to be free of synthetic food additives such as emulsifiers. Typical ‘natural’ emulsifiers include polysaccharides, and proteins; however, polysaccharides typically exhibit disadvantages such as a low surface-activity, whereas proteins have a low stability towards external stresses such as extreme pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Recently, another emulsifier group, namely saponins, has become subject of increasing research. These surface-active secondary plant metabolites comprise a non-polar triterpene or steroid aglycone covalently bound to sugar moieties. High saponin contents are typically found in the bark of Quillaja and Yucca, the peel of sugar beet and oat bran. For example, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most cultivated agricultural plants with a global annual production of ~250 million tons. During sugar extraction, approximately one ton of by-products per ton sugar accumulates, which is typically used as feed for cattle. Oat (Avena sativa L.) is also a widely grown agricultural crop in the world, however, the bran is mainly used for special forms of diets. From these by-products, saponins can be obtained by solventextraction and subsequent removal of the solvent, and spray-drying. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and characterize saponin-rich natural plant extracts generated by the food by-product streams as new natural emulsifier for the use in the food and beverage industries. For this, we characterized the saponin composition of the extracts by MALDI-TOF-MS, and investigated their interfacial properties at oil- and air-water interfaces. In addition, 10% oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7 at different concentration of saponin extracts were prepared, which were then subjected to external stresses. The emulsion stability was evaluated by measuring the particle size (d43), and charge. Sugar beet and oat bran extract contained significant amounts of surface-active saponins and reduced the interfacial tension at an oil-water interface by up to 38% (14.5 ± 0.3 mN.m1) and 70% (7.1 ± 0.1 mN.m-1), respectively. At a low surfactant-to-oil ratio, oat extract formed small emulsions droplets (426 ± 6 nm), whereas sugar beet extract generated bigger droplets (1290 ± 120 nm). These emulsions were physically stable at a pH range of 4 to 9, ionic strength £100 mM NaCl, temperature £90 °C, and when stored for up to 28 days. The physical stability of the emulsions was mainly attributed to the high electrostatic repulsion between the emulsion droplets as they exhibited strong negative charges (−60 mV). Overall, our results show that saponin rich extracts obtained from food by-products may be suitable for utilization as new natural emulsifier in selected emulsion-based foods. Financial Support: This work was supported by the FEI (Forschungskreis der Ernährungsindustrie e.V.), Bonn, Germany via AiF/BMWi (AiF 18815 N).
SENSORIAL EVALUATION OF SPIRULINA NUTRITIONALLY ENRICHED PUDDING JESSICA H. DUARTE1, KRICELLE M. DEAMICI1, CRISTIANE R. LISBOA1, THAISA D. SANTOS1, JORGE ALBERTO V. COSTA1*. 1Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Brazil. *[email protected]
The Spirulina microalgae is a photosynthetic microorganism whose composition has high proteins concentration (50-70%), being part of these biomolecules composed of essential amino acids. In addition, its biomass contains other macromolecules nutritionally important for the human body, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (including B12), pigments and phenolic compounds. Spirulina has the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) certificate issued by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Thus, its biomass can be used as food, meeting hygiene standards, without presenting a risk to human health. In this context, the Federal Universities of Rio Grande and Bahia have signed a partnership with the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication, whose main objective is to insert Spirulina in foods for school meals in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia. The project aims to increase the nutritional quality of school meals, reducing the number of child malnutrition cases in Brazil. The present work had as objective to evaluate sensory the chocolate pudding formulation with Spirulina addition. The ingredients have been selected according to the literature and with similar products on the market. Tests
with different concentrations of these ingredients were carried out until obtaining a product with desirable characteristics. The final pudding formulation has 3 % of Spirulina. Sensory tests of the Spirulina pudding formulation are being performed with adult and child judges. Three samples are being evaluated: puddings with and without Spirulina addition and commercial chocolate pudding (control). The sensorial parameters evaluated are taste, color, texture and global acceptance, using a hedonic scale of 9 and 5 points, respectively. In addition, the purchase intention will also be evaluated. The results obtained will be analyzed using Variance Analysis (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test for comparison between means, with a confidence level of 95% (p < 0.05). From this work, it is expected that the sensory parameters evaluated for the chocolate pudding with Spirulina addition are the same or greater than the samples without microalga addition and control. Thus, the insertion of this food into school meals will be possible, increasing its nutritional quality and promoting a healthier diet for Brazilian children. Financial Support: CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), MCTIC (Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications) and FURG (Federal University of Rio Grande)
SHORT –TIME SUPPLEMENTATION WITH FREEZE-DRIED JABOTICABA PEEL CAN MODULATES AUTOPHAGY MARKERS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE IN MICE ANDRESSA M. BASEGGIO¹*, CARLA E.C. NUÑEZ¹, NATHALIA R. V. DRAGANO², GUILHERME P. PRADO¹, NATHALIA C.B.V. RIBEIRO¹, SABRINA A. LENQUISTE¹, MARIO R. MARÓSTICA JR.1*. ¹Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism. University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. ²Laboratory of Cell Signaling, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. *[email protected]
Currently, several studies have demonstrated an increase of autophagy in adipose tissue, a mechanism of lysosomal degradation, showed a close relation with inflammation, overweight and obesity. However, studies about modulation in this mechanism induced by diets or bioactive compounds are scarce. Jaboticaba (Myrciaria sp.) is a native crop from Brazil, whose peel is rich in polyphenols (as anthocyanins) and fiber. Due to this, studies have shown that the regular consumption of Jaboticaba peel can bring beneficial to health. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect by supplementation with 4% freeze-dried jaboticaba peel (FJP) in autophagy markers at two depots of adipose tissue: inguinal (iAT) and epididymal (eAT), associated with normocaloric (NC) or high-fat (HF) diet. Forty C57BL/6 adults mice were fed with normocaloric diet, or high-fat diet, or normocaloric diet + 4% FJP and or high-fat diet + 4% FJP for four weeks (n=10/group). The body weight and food intake were measured weekly and after experimental period, the animals were euthanized. The inguinal (subcutaneous) and epidydimal (visceral) adipose tissue were collected, weighted and the content of some autophagy markers (Beclin-1 and SQSTM-p62 or LC3II - β-actina for endogenous marker) were determined by Western Blot assay. Our results showed that FJP consumption do not modify food intake (kcal/day) and iAT, eAT and body weight , but can modify autophagy
markers in adipose tissue of mice fed with HF diet in short time. In eAT, the FJP reduce both the Beclin-1 and LC3B-II concentration (p<0.05) in animals fed with HF diet, and only LC3-BII in animals fed with NC diet. However, do not observed differences in autophagy markers in iAT, both in NC diet as HF diet. Accordingly, the supplementation with FJP can modulate autophagy in visceral adipose tissue in short-time of HF diet, and the autophagy response appears to be different in each adipose tissue compartment and seems to be related at diet. The autophagy modulation via bioactive compounds can be a strategy to improve this dysfunction in the tissue and therefore its effect on adipogenesis. Financial Support: FAPESP process number 2015/20766-5
SPRAY DRIED LIPID -BASED FORMULATIONS CONTAINING CLOVE EXTRACT: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO PERMEATION ACROSS CaCo-2 CELL MONOLAYERS DIEGO F. CORTES-ROJAS1*, CLAUDIA R.F. SOUZA2, MONG-JEN CHEN3, GUENTHER HOCHHAUS3, WANDERLEY P. OLIVEIRA2. 1CORPOICA: Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research, Bogotá, Colombia; 2Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. *[email protected]
Natural antioxidants have gain great interest due to their effectiveness in preventing and combating health problems caused by oxidative stress. Moreover, natural antioxidants could avoid the secondary effects of synthetic antioxidants employed as food additives. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is an important medicinal plant that has been used for centuries as a food preservative and pain reliever, and it was found to be one of the richest source of phenolic antioxidants. In clove extracts, eugenol is the main compound which contributes to the majority of the medicinal and nutritional benefits. Buriti oil is obtained from the fruits of palm tree Mauritia flexuosa native of the Amazon region in Brazil, it was employed in this work not only as an adjuvant in the lipid formulations but also because is a rich
source of carotenoids. Formulating clove extracts is challenging because of the poor water solubility, instability and volatility of its bioactive compounds, and as consequence such formulations show often incomplete bioavailability and a tendency to
destabilize in aqueous media. Recently, lipid formulations have gained significant attention for formulating oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical products due to the high encapsulation efficiency, increased product stability and modification of solubility improving bioavailability. The spray drying process of the lipid formulations obtained also represents a new tendency especially for oral applications since solid forms are more stable and could be easily redispersible when needed. In the present work, lipid formulations containing buriti oil and clove extract were spray dried in order to encapsulate the volatile and poor water soluble compounds
and to obtain solid redispersible powders. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of lipids such as Gelucire and Compritol on physicochemical properties, stability and in vitro intestinal permeation of spray dried powdered formulations loaded with clove’s bioactive compounds. Results showed that eugenol retention in spray dried powders could be correlated with antioxidant activity and with mass recovery after spray drying. Adding Gelucire but not Compritol to clove extract formulations, improved solubility of spray dried powders. Stability test in high humidity environment (63.5 % RH) suggested that formulations including both Gelucire and Compritol were significantly more stable compared to the formulation without any lipid at the two tested temperatures (25°C and 40°C). This suggests that lipid additions to clove extract formulations provide protective effects for the spray dried powders in high humidity environments. In addition, results from in vitro intestinal permeation studies suggested that eugenol uptake, was not being hindered by transporters nor was the absorption being affected by lipid formulations. Financial Support: FAPESP Grant No. 2012/09890-6
STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON PROPERTIES OF LIPID COMPOSITIONS LOADED WITH LIPPIA SIDOIDES ESSENTIAL OIL USING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IARA BALDIM*, CLÁUDIA R. F. SOUZA, WANDERLEY P. OLIVEIRA*. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences – FCFRP-USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. *[email protected]
This work consisted in manufacturing lipid formulations containing essential oil of Lippia sidoides as active source to study the influence of the composition variables of the formulations and the drying process of the lipid dispersions on the physical and chemical properties presented by the final products. The study evaluated the influence of lipid concentrations (different ratios of Compritol®888 ATO) and drying carriers (different proportions of the maltodextrin / gum arabic ratio) on the properties of the dried powders by spray drying (varying inlet temperature, aiming to analyze its influence on the final product), freeze drying and on the original liquid formulation. The products obtained were analyze regarding physicochemical properties (particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential for all samples, moisture content and water activity for all powders and flow properties for spray dried powders), as well as powder recovery (spray dried powders only) and to the percentage retention of thymol, the major active compound in the essential oil of Lippia sidoides. The drying process by spray drying and freeze drying were performed according to an experimental design of three factors and three levels of Box-Behnken and another factorial design 32, respectively, to study the influence of processing variables on the physicochemical properties of the obtained products. Freeze-dried powders presented higher thymol retention and lower moisture and water activity values, indicating a very adequate process for dehydration of lipid formulations, which present low values of glass transition temperature. Financial Support: Capes; Fapesp (2014/15905-1)
SUPERCRITICAL ANTISOLVENT FRACTIONATION OF THE EXTRACT FROM RED PROPOLIS Yaneth Machaca Monroy1, Rodney A. F. Rodrigues2, Marili V. N. Rodrigues2, Anderson S. Sant'Ana3, Silva B. S. 3, Fernando A. Cabral1*. 1Department of Food Engineering, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Food science, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP, Brazil. E-mail address: *[email protected]
Red propolis is a resinous composite material collected by honeybees from the buds and barks of certain plants as Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L) Taub. (Leguminosae) and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee’s hives and has been used as a medicinal agent. A new supercritical antisolvent/extraction process has been developed for the fractionation of propolis extract for obtain flavonoids fractions, and remove high molecular mass components by antisolvent precipitation. Some of the flavonoids are practically insoluble in pure CO2, but sufficiently soluble in CO2 + ethanol to enable their separation from high molecular mass and/or more polar components. In the first step of the process, supercritical CO2 is used both as an anti-solvent to precipitate high molecular mass components, and as a solvent to extract soluble components of the propolis at 50 ºC and different pressures (200, 100, 80 and 1.013 bar) using ethanol 70% and 96% as solvent. The extracts and fractions were analyzed in terms of overall yield (X0), point yield (Y0), the extraction yield of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF)
were determined in the extracts, as well as the antioxidant activity (AoA) expressed as EC50/DPPH and antimicrobian activity (AmA) against Strains of L. monocytogenes (ATCC 7644), B. cereus (IAL 55), S. aureus (ATCC 13565), P. aeruginosa (IAL 1853), S. thyphimurium (IAL 2431), E. coli (IAL 2064) and P. fluorescens (ATCC 13525) were used in the study . The presence of CO2 as antisolvent and EtOH70% as solvent was essential to obtain High yields and concentrated phenolic extracts, The Y0 It was as follows 100>200>80>1.013 bar, obtaing high values of the phenolic compounds (TP and TF) in the fraction of 100 bar with high biological activities. Financial Support: CNPq.
SURVIVAL LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS MICROENCAPSULATED BY SPRAY DRYING IN PRESENCE OF TREHALOE AND SUCROSE DURING STORAGE Amalia I. Cano Embuena*1, Jacquelin Agudelo Chaparro2, Chelo González Martínez1, Amparo Chiralt Boix1. 1Research Institute of Food Engineering for Development, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain. 2Research group of Food Science and Technology, GICTA, Agricultural Science Faculty, National University of Colombia, Medellin, Colombia. *[email protected]
The consumer’s demand of probiotic functional food boosts the development of newly dried formulations to protect and increase the viability of these bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Spray drying is a widely used technique of microencapsulation, giving rise to high cell survival rates if the optimal drying conditions and the appropriate protectant agents are used. In this sense, whey proteins (WPI) and maltodextrin (MD) have been used as coating and protectant agents, respectively. In addition, the protective effect of low molecular weight sugars such as glucose, fructose and lactose together with whey proteins have been shown to exert positive effects on the survival of L. rhamnosus. Nevertheless, the protective effect of other sugars such as sucrose (S) or trehalose (T) have not been studied. To this end, the viability of encapsulated L.rhamnosus by spray drying using different formulations based on WPI:MD with and without sucrose or trehalose as protective agents, was studied as a function of the storage time and the equilibrium water activity (aw). Formulations of probiotics products, based on different blends of WPI:MD (1:2), WPI:MD:S (1:1:1) and WPI:MD:T (1:1:1) containing a proper concentration (109 CFU/mL) of L. Rhamnosus were obtained by sray drying. The dried products were stored at 20 °C under different water activity (aw) conditions (0.11 to 0.75) and the viability of the cells was determined over time (till 7 months). As a results, at t=0, L. Rhamnosus counts were closed to 109 CFU/g, exhibiting a great cell survival after spray drying process in all formulations. This viability throughout time depended on the water activity and composition of the powders. The cell viability decreased in line with the rise of the aw and the storage time, especially after 154 days of storage at 20 C. Thus, all formulations stored at the lowest aw (0.11) exhibited the greatest viability, around 80 % up to 84 days of storage. At intermediate aw values (up to 0.43), the viability decreased to 65% when storing the samples up to 84 days. For longer storage periods and higher aw, the survival of the bacteria was markedely affected (survival lower than 40%). The presence of sucrose or trehalose significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the cell survival ratio at every aw studied. Non-significant differences were found between formulations with sucrose or trehalose. So, to preserve the viability of encapsulated L. Rhamnosus for almost 3 months is recommended to incorporate sucrose or trehalose as protective agents into the WPI:MD formulation and to store the powders at low water activity and 20 C. Financial Support: The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad throughout the project RTC-2015-3759-2.
TAILLORING DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF VALUABLE COMPOUNDS FROM NATURAL SOURCES USING CHOLINE CHLORIDE AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS MIXTURES: OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM JUGLANS REGIA L. LEAVES VANESSA VIEIRA1,2,3, MIGUEL A. PRIETO3,4, LILLIAN BARROS2,3, ISABEL C.F.R. FERREIRA3, OLGA FERREIRA2 AND JOÃO A. P. COUTINHO1*. 1Aveiro Institute of Materials (CICECO), Complexo de Laboratórios Tecnológicos, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Associate Laboratory LSRE-LCM, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal; 3Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), ESA, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal; 4Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain. *[email protected]
Phenolic compounds are a wide group of plant secondary metabolites with increasing interest due to their antioxidant ability and marked effects on oxidative processes related to several chronic diseases. Nowadays, they find applications in pharmaceutical products, functional foods and natural-based cosmetics. Therefore, the extraction and identification of these valuable compounds from different plants have become a major research area. Nevertheless, conventional solid-liquid extraction of phenolics usually involves the use of flammable, toxic and volatile organic solvents. Deep eutectic solvents (DES)
are gaining much interest as alternative solvents to extract valuable compounds from natural matrices. DES can be considered “designer solvents” due to the possibility of combining different HBA (hydrogen bond acceptor) and HBD (hydrogen bond donor) to obtain solvents with specific properties to the target application. In this study, DES composed of choline chloride (CC) and different groups of organic acids were prepared, in order to extract phenolic compounds from leaves of Juglans regia L. (walnut leaves). The initial screening involved monocarboxylic (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, lactic and glycolic acids), dicarboxylic (malonic, glutaric and malic acids), tricarboxylic (citric) and aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid). The initial extraction conditions were: 50 ºC, 60 min extraction time and 20% water content. The main phenolic compounds (neochlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin O-pentoside) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode de array detector (HPLC-DAD at 280 and 370 nm). Higher extraction yields were obtained using CC:butyric acid and CC:3-phenylpropanoic acid. For these systems, the stoichiometric ratio of HBA and HBD as well as the water content in the DES solutions were further evaluated. Better results were obtained using DES compared to the conventional water + ethanol mixed solvent. The present work contributes to the valorization of walnut leaves extracts using alternative solvents that could be tailored for potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical areas. Financial Support: The authors thank the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and FEDER under Programme PT2020 for financial support to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2013), L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/107855/2015) and V. Vieira (SFRH/BD/108487/2015) grants. To POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006984 (LA LSRE-LCM), funded by ERDF, through POCI-COMPETE2020 and FCT. To Xunta de Galicia for financial support for the post-doctoral researcher of M.A. Prieto.
ULTRASOUND ASSISTED MOLECULAR ENCAPSULATION ANTIOXIDANT THYME COMPONENTS IN -CICLODEXTRIN
LEONARDO C. FAVRE1,3*, M. PAULA LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ2,3, CRISTINA DOS SANTOS1, M. FLORENCIA MAZZOBRE1,3, JOSÉ A. RUFIÁN HENARES4, M. DEL PILAR BUERA1,3. 1Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Industrias, Laboratorio de Propiedades Físico-Químicas y Conservación de Biomoléculas. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental (IBBEA), Laboratorio de Biología del Desarrollo de Plantas. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 3Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Buenos Aires, Argentina. 4Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología. Granada, España. *[email protected]
Nowadays the demand for active natural compounds to replace synthetic additives in formulated foods has increased. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a natural source of antioxidant and anti-glycation activities. The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are generated by incorporation of sugar or aldehyde residues derived from oxidized lipids to the protein structure. Polyphenols and other antioxidants are protective agents of the effect caused by free radicals have been proposed as glycation regulator agents. The aim of this work was to obtain thyme extracts (ThE), as bioactive compounds sources to evaluate their potential antioxidant, anti-glycation and formation inhibitor for AGEs in a bovine serum albumin model system (BSA/glucose). The combination of -cyclodextrin (BCD) aqueous solution and ultrasound was found to be very effective, it was proposed as a novel strategy to extract both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds in aqueous medium, in one step and avoiding use of organic solvents. The extraction was carried out employing ultrasound and different solutions (BCD 5 and 15 mM, water, and water:Ethanol 1:1) that were shaken (1-10h) at 25°C. The model system was incubated at 55°C with or without ThE 5% and polyphenol content (TPC) was determined for Folin-Ciocalteu, the antioxidant capacity by DPPH•, by FRAP and anti-glycation activity evaluating the protein mobility by electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) that were stained with Coomassie Blue and the Schiff reagent PAS to reveal glycoproteins. Initial stages of protein glycation were determined using furosine as a reaction marker, applying high resolution liquid chromatography (HPLC). Independently to the employed solution, the thyme bioactive compounds extraction
was increased as increasing the treatment time. Extraction was more efficient in BCD solutions. It was observed that 5 and 15 mM BCD solutions allow to duplicate and triplicate, respectively, the TPC and the antioxidant capacity respect to the treatment without BCD. The presence of high molecular weight bands in ThE absence proved the AGEs formation for BSA/glucose model system. PAS stained revealed that the glycation in ThE presence was inhibited about 93% with extracts incubated 24 h and about 84% for those incubated during 72 h. In ThE presence, the furosine development was inhibited about 3% for extracts incubated during 24 h and 23% for those incubated 72 h. From these results, it is proposed the combined use of BCD and ultrasound as strategy to extract bioactive compounds from vegetables in aqueous medium, in one step and without organic solvents. The ThE may has an interesting role as antioxidant and as potential inhibitor and/or natural regulator for the protein glycation process, which results promising for its employing in functional foods and/or nutraceuticals. Financial Support: UBACYT 20020130100443BA, University of Buenos Aires. PICT 2013-1331, BID - Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation. PDTS CIN-CONICET 2014-196, National Inter-University Council. National Scientific and Technical Research Council. Net CYTED 415RT0495, Ibero-American Program for the Development of Science and Technology.
ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED FORMATION OF O/W PICKERING-EMULSIONS STABILIZED BY CHITOSAN PARTICLES ANA LETÍCIA R. COSTA1, ANDRESA GOMES1, ROSIANE L. CUNHA1*. 1Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas-SP, Brazil. *[email protected]
Deprotonated chitosan nanoparticles showed a potential to be a food-grade particle stabilizer of oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions. The effect of emulsification conditions using ultrasonic device was evaluated changing time and ultrasonication (US) power. The physicochemical properties of chitosan particles and Pickering emulsions formed from different process were evaluated. A reduction in zeta potential was observed increasing the pH from 3.3 to 6.9. However, the combined intensification of time and US power led to an increase in zeta potential suggesting a change in charge density on chitosan polymer chains attributed to the exposition of protonated amino groups. In addition, a reduction on size and polydispersity increase of chitosan particles were observed. The surface activity of chitosan particles was evidenced with the reduction of interfacial tension between O/W. This behavior was associated to the greater capacity of hydrophobic groups acting onto the interface after the formation of self-aggregated chitosan. At higher US power, the decrease of droplet size favored the interaction between oil droplets through weak attractive forces leading to an increase in viscosity and pronounced shear-thinning behavior of emulsions. Besides, the smaller droplet created during the ultrasonication process could be covered and stabilized by particles sharing (bridging flocculation). In addition, the higher stability of these emulsions was associated with the capacity of ultrasonication treatment to disrupt chitosan particles and oil droplets breakup into smaller size, as well as, to promote the satisfactory homogenization of disperse phase into the continuous one forming a droplet network structure. Financial Support: The authors thank CAPES- Brazil (DEA/FEA/PROEX) and FAPESP- Brazil (FAPESP 2007/58017-5 and 2011/06083-0) for their financial support. Ana Letícia Rodrigues Costa Lelis thanks CNPq-Brazil (CNPq 140710/2015-9) for the fellowship and Rosiane Lopes Cunha thanks CNPq- Brazil (CNPq 305477/2012-9) for the productivity grant.
USE OF A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT OBTAINED FROM GRAPE POMACE IN THE FORMULATION OF TILAPIA SAUSAGES GABRIELA N MATTOS1*, RENATA TORREZAN2, RENATA V TONON2, ANGELA A L FURTADO2, LOURDES M C CABRAL2. 1Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *[email protected]
Grape pomace is one of the main coproducts from winemaking. Due to its high level of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity, it is considered a promising source of natural antioxidants. Lipid oxidation is the main cause of food quality loss, being responsible for discoloration, off-flavour and shelf-life decreasing. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the potential use of a microencapsulated grape pomace extract as a natural antioxidant in the formulation of tilapia sausages. The Alicante bouschet grape pomace was dried, ground and extracted using a 30% ethanolic aqueous solution, under mechanical shaking (25 rpm) for 1 hour (30°C). The extract was then filtered using a nylon mesh (150 μm) and microencapsulated by spray drying, using maltodextrin as wall material, with a ratio of maltodextrin: extract solids of 1:1. Feed flow rate was 0,96 L/h, inlet air temperature was 180°C and outlet air temperature was 69°C. Five treatments were made in order to evaluate the effect of grape pomace extract powder on lipid oxidation: 1) Control – with curing salt and no antioxidant; 2) Positive control – with curing salt and synthetic antioxidant BHT; 3) T0,5%SC – with curing salt and natural antioxidant; 4) T0,5% – no curing salt and with 0,5% of natural antioxidant; 5) T1% – no curing salt and with 1% of natural antioxidant. The microencapsulated extract was analyzed for total phenolic content, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity, and tilapia sausages were evaluated for the extent of lipid oxidation by TBARS method at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage at 5ºC. Color, texture and overall acceptance were evaluated using a nine point hedonic scale range from extremely dislike to extremely like. Seventy seven non trained panellists evaluated the products. Total phenolics and anthocyanin content in the microencapsulated powder were 3728.9 ± 208.3 mg GAE/100g and 84.6 ± 3.1 mg/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS and ORAC methods were 259.6 ± 35.7 μm Trolox Equivalent/g and 245.0 ± 8.6 μm Trolox/g, respectively. Regarding lipid oxidation, all sausages had very low values during all the shelf life (0.00 to 0.092 mg MDA/kg), including the control sample. These results could be explained by an initial oxidation reaction, which could cause the increase on malondialdehyde concentrations at time zero, followed by a volatilization of this substance during storage. Thus, it wasn´t possible to evaluate the isolated action of curing salt, grape pomace powder and BHT, due to the reduced malondialdehyde production during shelf life, suggesting that additional studies are needed to better demonstrate their efficiencies. There was no significant difference in the scores of overall acceptance results among control
sausage (5.95), positive control sausage (5.42) and other treatments (T1%-5,84; T0,5SC-5,62). Considering the color and texture attributes, there was no significant difference between control sausages and treated sausages. Thereby, the addiction of grape pomace powder did not influence sensory quality. Financial Support: CAPES and FAPERJ.
UTILIZATION OF THE BY-PRODUCT OF WET BARLEY MILLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOODLES AND SPAGHETTI TYPES FABIOLA A. GUZMÁN-ORTIZ1*, ALMA D. ROMÁN-GUTIÉRREZ2, JAVIER CASTRO-ROSAS2, CARLOS A. GÓMEZ-ALDAPA2. 1CONACYTUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5, Ciudad del conocimiento, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, CP. 42184, México; 2Área Académica de Química (AAQ), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5, Ciudad del conocimiento, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, CP. 42184, México. *[email protected]
The by-product resulting from the isolation of starch in wet barley milling is rich in protein, which can be used in the enrichment of functional foods. Extrusion is a process that allows to obtain nutritionally enriched foods with specific characteristics. The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of different percentages of substitution durum wheat semolina by wet barley milling sub-product (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) on the physical, functional and structural characteristics of pasta type noodles and spaghetti. The extrusion process was performed in a single screw extruder. The temperature of extrusion was 110 ° C, moisture content 35% and screw speed 15 rpm. The microstructure of the pastes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. In both pastes, the percentage of sedimentation analyzed after cooking increased as the percentage of substitution increased. In the noodles, the water absorption capacity, hardness, cohesiveness, guminess and chewing decreased as the amount of the byproduct increased and the cooking time of the pasta increased. The elasticity decreased in the substitution of 5 and 15%. Microscopy analysis showed a heterogenous and disordered structure, the starch granules appear not to be fully embedded in protein networks. In the spaghetti type pasta, the water absorption capacity decreased only in the substitution of 10 and 15%, the cooking time was not significantly affected (p <0.05) by addition of the by-product. The hardness, cohesiveness and guminess only decreased in the substitution of 5 and 10%. The chewing and elasticity did not present a linear tendency, the chewing increased in the substitution of 5% and decreased in the substitution of 15 and 20%. The micrographs showed a compact, homogeneous structure, the starch granules seem to be enveloped in continuous protein networks. It is possible to use the by-product of wet milling of barley in the production of a paste in a maximum proportion of 5%. W/O NANOEMULSIONS LOADED WITH AÇAÍ BERRY PHYTOCHEMICALS AS INNOVATIVE AND STABLE FOOD INGREDIENT CEZAR A. S. RABELO1, NOAMANE TAARJI1, NAUMAN KHALID2, ISAO KOBAYASHI1,3, MARCOS A. NEVES1,3, MITSUTOSHI NAKAJIMA1,3. 1University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; 2University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Food Research Institute, NARO, Tsukuba, Japan. *[email protected]
Euterpe oleracea is an Amazonian palm tree mostly known for its berry called açaí berry. The black variety of this fruit changes its coloration during ripening, from green to black due to high contents of polyphenols. Açaí berry is rich in polyphenols, especially anthocyanins (ACN), which have high antioxidant activity and have preventive or protective action against cardiovascular diseases or cancer, among others. The anti-aging properties and high phytochemical composition gave much attention to açaí berry and called nowadays as “super fruit”. However, those bioactive compounds are labile and sensitive to hazardous environments, limiting its application in food processing and technology. In order to increase the stability of these compounds, food-grade water-in-oil (W/O) nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized over 30 days storage time. A lyophilized açaí berry sample was used as subtract to extract phytochemicals, using 70% ethanol and 1% citric acid aqueous solution at 55oC, for two hours, with different proportions of açaí: 0 wt%, 2 wt% and 5 wt%. From each of these three açaí berry extract (ABE), nanoemulsions were formulated using three different weight fractions of extract and oil: 10 wt%, 20 wt%and 30 wt% of extract with 90 wt%, 80 wt% and 70 wt%, respectively, of mediumchain triglyceride (MCT) oil. 5% of polyricinoleic acid tetraglycerol ester (CR-310) was used as hydrophobic emulsifier. Two-step emulsification methodology was adopted: initially using a rotor stator homogenization at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes, followed by high-pressure homogenization at 100 MPa for 4 passes. The physical stability of W/O nanoemulsions was investigated by average droplet size and creaming index, whereas the chemical stability was chariterized by free radical scavenging activity, total polyphenols content and total ACN content, during 30 days storage at 4oC. All freshly produced nanoemulsions presented a light red coloration, except samples from the extract
with 0g 100g-1 of açaí. This coloration was more intense for samples from the extract with 5g 100g-1 of açaí. This suggested that the emulsification process was not able to degrade most of açaí berry phytochemicals, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. In a 30 days shelf-life study, the nanoemulsions were relatively stable, with no evident phase-separation. The average droplet size varied from 142.2 nm to 437.1 nm for samples containing ABE and 814.8 nm to 518.2 nm to samples without (ABE). For creaming index results, samples without ABE peaked 8% against samples with ABE ranging from 4 to 6%. It was also observed that there was a higher protection of polyphenols and ACN when encapsulated than free ABE at the same conditions. All water-in-oil nanoemulsions maintain antioxidant activity after 30 days storage. Regarding ACNs, the retention kinetics followed first-orders degradation rates. Most samples presented a retention above 70% of initial ACN content, when the ABE retained 63.5% for 5 g 100 g-1 and 47.9% for 2 g 100 g-1. These results indicate a possible new application for açaí berry in food industry, as na ingredient that could enhance the health claims of a certain products. Other than that, these findings could be use in pharmaceutical products and as well as in cosmetics. Financial Support: Doctoral scholarship granted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).
WHEY PEPTIDE-IRON COMPLEXES: OBTAINING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF IRON PRO-OXIDANT EFFECT AND IRON BIOAVAILABILITY USING CACO-2 CELL CULTURE MODEL MARIA ELISA CAETANO-SILVA1*, ANTONIO CILLA2, MARIA TERESA BERTOLDO-PACHECO3, REGINA CÉLIA GALVÃO FREM4, LILIAN REGINA BARROS MARIUTTI1, NEURA BRAGAGNOLO1, AMPARO ALEGRÍA2, FLAVIA MARIA NETTO1. 1Faculty of Food Engineering, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Institute of Food Technology, ITAL, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 4Institute of Chemistry, UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. *[email protected]
Food fortification with iron has been challenging, since in salt form, as commonly applied, iron shows low bioavailability and promotes undesirable sensory changes and lipid oxidation. The present work aimed to synthesize and characterize peptide-iron complexes using FeCl2 or FeSO4 as iron precursor compounds, and to study possible effects of complexation, concerning in vitro iron bioavailability and its pro-oxidant effect. To synthesize the complexes, whey protein isolate (WPI), WPI hydrolyzed with pancreatin and its fractions obtained by ultrafiltration using a 5 kDa cut off membrane, were used as ligands. The fluorescence spectra of ligands showed dramatic decrease in fluorescence intensity as iron concentration increased. Possibly, ligand conformation changes during the process of iron coordination led to changes in tryptophan (Trp) microenvironment. Iron coordination by the ligands, for both iron sources, occurred mainly through bidentate coordination mode with carboxyl groups, evidenced by infrared (IR) bands assigned to the vibrational modes asymmetric and symmetric stretching of COO-Fe bond. The iron source influenced the complex structure, possibly due to the counterions chloride and sulfate, which exert a crucial role in the conformation of the ligand and, consequently, the formed complex. Iron coordination by all the ligands favored the formation of complexes stable under gastrointestinal in vitro digestion, leading to bioaccessibility > 85% in all cases. Nevertheless, the complexes synthesized with low-molecular-mass peptides (MM<5 kDa) and FeCl2 led to higher ferritin synthesis in Caco-2 cells than ferrous sulfate. This fact suggests that the pathway of iron uptake in its complexed form is related not only to the capacity to protect iron during gastrointestinal tract and to take it near to the enterocyte, but also to the normal ligand pathway. The iron source influenced the in vitro bioavailability, possibly due to the differences in complexes structures, evidencing the great importance of the iron source choice. Besides the in vitro bioavailability aspect, iron complexation led to decrease in its pro-oxidant effect, evidenced by the reduction of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products formation in oil-in-water emulsions, in relation to the mineral free form. Emulsions containing peptide-iron complexes showed peroxide and hexanal formation around 60-80% and 85-100% lower than the emulsions containing iron in salt form, respectively. The addition of peptide-iron complexes to the emulsions resulted in much lower lipid oxidation possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron coordinated and therefore less reactive. The peptide-iron complex is therefore a promising alternative for food fortification instead of ferrous sulfate, one of the most widely used salts for this practice. The use of this complex shows potential to increase iron absorption and to decrease its pro-oxidant effect. Thus, it can favor the reduction of undesirable sensory changes in food products, diminish the side effects related to free iron, as well as the oxidative damages in the cell membranes in the organism. Financial Support: FAPESP [grant number 2013/10356-7] and [grant number 2015/02254-5].
Book of Abstracts - spsas - reverse engineering of processed foods
FAPESP – The São Paulo Research Foundation
São Paulo School of Advanced Sciences on Reverse Engineering of Processed Foods
Book of Abstracts Septemb...
Jan 1, 2014 - Mating disruption for the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) in. California populations (keynote speaker). 15:00. 15:15. Lucchi A. Pheromone techniques in the EGVM (Lobesia botrana) eradication program in California. 15:15. 15:30. Cortes
Jun 4, 2017 - blood circulation disturbance and inflammatory disease in many countries since ancient age. The essential ...... soft-wheat flour, obtained new pasta head similar protein content; however it had significantly ...... But it is not unique
Oct 6, 2017 - Luisa Maria Arvide Cambra, University of Almeria, Spain. Chandrasekhar Putcha, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA. Priscila Martins Medeiros, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Tayssir Hamieh, Lebanese univer
Sep 29, 2017 - Moderator: Prof. Sri Nugroho Marsoem. 7.1 IAWS representative speech. 13.45 - 14.15. Prof. Arno Fruehwald. 7.2 PBM representative speech. 14.15 - 14.45. Prof. ...... defects becomes unexpectedly serious because the residual stress dist
Sep 8, 2017 - students in sport management from all over the world and further social events and free time to discover and ..... advantage in the longer run (Reiche, 2016; Sam, 2012; Zheng & Chen, 2016). ...... workloads, program delivery logistics,
Sep 5, 2014 - The impact of catchment management and climate change on dissolved organic carbon flux in .... with Ceriodaphnia dubia Author(s):C.H. Watanabe , A.H. Rosa, R. FracÃ¡cio, V.S.. Lira, T.R. SÃ¡ ...... Abstract The interaction mechanisms of
Sep 22, 2017 - The effect of wind velocity on the application of mating disruption method in Lobesia botrana, using (VP) ISONET L impregnated rings dispensers, in Litochoro Pieria (Greece). C. GKERTSOS, G. ...... through a customized Markov Chain Mon
Sep 11, 2017 - Thermocapillary effect on the dynamics of an exterior coating film flow down a fibre subject to an axial ...... cathode reactant gas flow rate is 60 ml/min, making ...... Commonly needed diagnostics for the selected insert candidates.
Sep 15, 2017 - SLU Faculty of Forest Sciences research school â Bioeconomy â adapted forest management ..... regeneration, ground beetles, spiders and songbirds) collected before and up to 10 years after harvest at the large-scale ... broadleaf a
Category: Reverse Engineering. Reversing the Trendnet ... Binwalk is very useful reverse engineering toolkit which can analyze and extract files from unknown binary files. However note that it can ..... Practical reverse engineering: x86, x64, ARM, W
1. Yield improvement at direct reduction plant, module-E by modifying oxide screen-mesh 5 1. Blast furnace smelting of the titaniferous magnetite ores with the various content of titanium dioxide and quality of the ..... TBM tuyeres arrangements and
Sep 15, 2015 - Esta ponencia deja en suspenso una crÃtica de la modernidad dirigida hacia sus ...... Resumen: El proceso de construcciÃ³n de conocimiento es un proceso complejo, mÃ¡s aÃºn si se plantea intencionalmente hacerlo de forma colectiva e .
Sep 27, 2014 - Prof. Murat Yercan, President of the Organizing Committee, Faculty of. Agriculture, Ege University, Turkey. Prof. Hamid ÄustoviÄ, Deputy President of the Organizing Committee, Faculty of. Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of
Jun 1, 2013 - Custom diTPS and P450 databases coveringthe functional ...... P101.Control of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana through the manipulation of the plant ...... on pesticides (many of which are currently being phased out) and mating disrup
Esta ponencia deja en suspenso una crÃtica de la modernidad dirigida hacia sus ...... Experiencia Formativa.. Resumen: El proceso de construcciÃ³n de conocimiento es un proceso complejo, mÃ¡s aÃºn si se plantea intencionalmente hacerlo de forma cole
Dec 17, 2011 - In this study, the metaphonological skills in Kannada-speaking verbal children with cerebral palsy. (Group 1 ..... http://ebooks.iaccp.org/xian/PDFs/6_3Panda.pdf Retrieved 14/10/11. Panda, M. ...... years of education was 17.33 Â± 2.14
Nevertheless, there is a feedback process between increases in the air temperature and increases in .... stabilized in the form of pure teak forest having homogenous teak dominated community with 25 tree ...... J. Lawrence *, Jamson Masih and Ajay Ta
Apr 6, 2016 - Voice and participation. Chair: T. Dundon. Session venue: WZB B002. â¢. Re-conceptualising Employee Silence. E. Nechanska. â¢. Voice through Exit â Revolutionising Participation by Solo-Self-Employed. C. Ruiner, M. Wilkesmann, B. Ap
Dec 6, 2011 - By contrast, the third book in this category, Laskowski .... C/yer-initial suff. a. epenthesis: CeCC cyfr-a cyfr cyfer-k-a b. yer vocalization: CeCC srebr-o sreber sreber-k-o c. trapped sonorant srebr-o sreber srebr- ..... In these sent
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